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Chapter 1 An Overview of Computers and Programming Languages.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 An Overview of Computers and Programming Languages."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 An Overview of Computers and Programming Languages

2 Chapter Objectives Learn about different types of computers Explore the hardware and software components of a computer system Learn about the language of a computer Learn about the evolution of programming languages Examine high-level programming languages

3 Chapter Objectives Discover what a compiler is and what it does Examine how a Java program is processed Learn what an algorithm is and explore problem-solving techniques Become aware of structured and object- oriented programming design methodologies

4 Introduction Computers have greatly effected our daily lives – helping us complete many tasks Computer programs (software) are designed specifically for each task Software is created with programming languages Java is an example of a programming language

5 An Overview of the History of Computers 1950s: Very large devices available to a select few 1960s: Large corporations owned computers 1970s: Computers get smaller and cheaper 1990s: Computers get cheaper and faster and are found in most homes

6 Elements of a Computer System A computer has 2 components –Hardware –Software

7 Hardware Components of a Computer Central Processing Unit (CPU) Main Memory

8 Central Processing Unit Control Unit (CU) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Program Counter (PC) Instruction Register (IR) Accumulator (ACC)

9 Main Memory Ordered sequence of cells (memory cells) Directly connected to CPU All programs must be brought into main memory before execution When power is turned off, everything in main memory is lost

10 Main Memory with 100 Storage Cells

11 Secondary Storage Provides permanent storage for information Examples of secondary storage: –Hard Disks –Floppy Disks –ZIP Disks –CD-ROMs –Tapes

12 Input Devices Definition: devices that feed data and computer programs into computers Examples: –Keyboard –Mouse –Secondary Storage

13 Output Devices Definition: devices that the computer uses to display results Examples: –Printer –Monitor –Secondary Storage

14 Hardware Components of a Computer

15 Software Software consists of programs written to perform specific tasks Two types of programs –System Programs –Application Programs

16 System Programs System programs control the computer The operating system is first to load when you turn on a computer

17 Operating System (OS) OS monitors overall activity of the computer and provides services Example services: –memory management –input/output –activities –storage management

18 Application Programs Written using programming languages Perform a specific task Run by the OS Example programs: –Word Processors –Spreadsheets –Games

19 Language of a Computer Machine language: the most basic language of a computer A sequence of 0s and 1s Every computer directly understands its own machine language A bit is a binary digit, 0 or 1 A byte is a sequence of eight bits

20 Evolution of Programming Languages Early computers programmed in machine language Assembly languages were developed to make programmer’s job easier In assembly language, an instruction is an easy-to-remember form called a mnemonic Assembler: translates assembly language instructions into machine language

21 Instructions in Assembly and Machine Language

22 Evolution of Programming Languages High-level languages make programming easier Closer to spoken languages Examples: –Basic –FORTRAN –COBOL –C/C++ –Java

23 Evolution of Programming Languages To run a Java program: 1.Java instructions need to be translated into an intermediate language called bytecode 2.Then the bytecode is interpreted into a particular machine language

24 Evolution of Programming Languages Compiler: A program that translates a program written in a high-level language into the equivalent machine language. (In the case of Java, this machine language is the bytecode.) Java Virtual Machine (JVM) - hypothetical computer developed to make Java programs machine independent

25 Processing a Java Program Two types of Java programs: applications and applets Source program: Written in a high-level language Linker: Combines bytecode with other programs provided by the SDK and creates executable code Loader: transfers executable code into main memory Interpreter: reads and translates each bytecode instruction into machine language and then executes it

26 Processing a Java Program

27 Problem-Analysis-Coding- Execution Cycle Algorithm: A step-by-step problem-solving process in which a solution is arrived at in a finite amount of time

28 Problem-Solving Process 1.Analyze the problem: outline solution requirements and design an algorithm 2.Implement the algorithm in a programming language (Java) and verify that the algorithm works 3.Maintain the program: use and modify if the problem domain changes

29 Problem-Analysis-Coding- Execution Cycle

30 Programming Methodologies Two basic approaches to programming design: –Structured design –Object-oriented design

31 Structured Design 1.A problem is divided into smaller subproblems 2.Each subproblem is solved 3.The solutions of all subproblems are then combined to solve the problem

32 Object-Oriented Design (OOD) In OOD, a program is a collection of interacting objects An object consists of data and operations Steps in OOD: 1.Identify objects 2.Form the basis of the solution 3.Determine how these objects interact

33 Example 1-1 Design an algorithm to find the perimeter and area of a rectangle. The perimeter and area of the rectangle are given by the following formulas: perimeter = 2 · (length + width) area = length · width

34 The algorithm to find the perimeter and area of the rectangle is, therefore: 1. Get the length of the rectangle. 2. Get the width of the rectangle. 3. Find the perimeter using the following equation: perimeter = 2 · (length + width) 4. Find the area using the following equation: area = length · width

35 Example 1-2 Design an algorithm that calculates the monthly paycheck of a sales- person at a local department store. Every salesperson has a base salary. The salesperson also receives a bonus at the end of each month based on the following criteria: If the salesperson has been with the store for five or less years, the bonus is $10 for each year that he or she has worked there. If the salesperson has been with the store for more than five years, the bonus is $20 for each year that he or she has worked there. The salesperson can earn an additional bonus as follows: If the total sale made by the salesperson for the month is more than $5000 but less than $10000, he or she receives a 3% commission on the sale. If the total sale made by the salesperson for the month is at least $10000, he or she receives a 6% commission on the sale.

36 The algorithm to calculate a salesperson’s monthly paycheck. 1. Get baseSalary. 2. Get noOfServiceYears. 3. Compute the bonus by the following : if(noOfServiceYears is less than or equal to five) bonus = 10 · noOfServiceYears otherwise bonus = 20 · noOfServiceYears 4. Get totalSale.

37 5. Calculate additionalBonus using the following formula. if (totalSale is less than 5000) additionalBonus = 0 otherwise if(totalSale is greater than or equal to 5000 and totalSale is less than 10000) additionalBonus = totalSale · (0.03) otherwise additionalBonus = totalSale · (0.06) 6. Calculate payCheck using the equation payCheck = baseSalary + bonus + additionalBonus

38 Chapter Summary A computer system is made up of hardware and software components Computers understand machine language; it is easiest for programmers to write in high-level languages A compiler translates high-level language into machine language High-level language steps to execute a program: edit, compile, link, load, and execute

39 Chapter Summary Algorithm: step-by-step problem-solving process in which a solution is arrived at in a finite amount of time Three steps to problem solving: analyze the problem and design an algorithm, implement the algorithm in a programming language, and maintain the program Two basic approaches to programming design: structured and object-oriented

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