2 Essential questions What limits the production in ecosystems? How do nutrients move in the ecosystem?How does energy move through the ecosystem?
3 Ecosystem All the organisms in a community plus abiotic factors ecosystems are ______________________& __________________________Ecosystems are self-sustainingwhat is needed?capture energytransfer energycycle nutrients
4 Ecosystem inputs nutrients cycle inputs energy nutrients biosphereMatter cannotbe created or destroyedenergy flows throughconstant input of energynutrients cyclenutrients can only cycleinputsenergynutrients
5 Generalized Nutrient cycling consumersconsumersconsumersproducersdecomposersdecomposersnutrients ENTER FOOD CHAIN = made available to producersnutrients made available to producersreturn to abiotic reservoirDecomposition connects all trophic levelsabiotic reservoirabiotic reservoirgeologic processesgeologic processes
6 Carbon cycle ___________________: CO2 in atmosphere photosynthesis = carbon fixation in Calvin cycledecompositionrespirationcombustionCarbon cycleCO2 inatmosphereDiffusionRespirationPhotosynthesisPlants and algaePlantsAnimalsIndustry and homeCombustion of fuelsCarbonates in sedimentBicarbonatesDeposition ofdead materialDepositionof deadmaterialFossil fuels(oil, gas, coal)Dissolved CO2
7 Nitrogen cycle Atmospheric nitrogen Carnivores Herbivores Birds Plants _____________________:N in atmosphere_____________________: nitrogen fixation by soil & aquatic bacteriadecomposing & nitrifying bacteriaanimal wastes_____________________: denitrifying bacteriaAtmosphericnitrogenCarnivoresHerbivoresBirdsPlankton withnitrogen-fixingbacteriaPlantsDeath, excretion, fecesFishNitrogen-fixingbacteria(plant roots)Decomposing bacteriaamino acidsexcretionAmmonifying bacteriaNitrogen-fixingbacteria(soil)loss to deep sedimentsNitrifying bacteriaDenitrifyingbacteriasoil nitrates
8 Phosphorus cycle _____________________: rocks, minerals, soil erosion releases soluble phosphateuptake by plantsdecomposing bacteria & fungi_____________________: loss to ocean sedimentPhosphorus cycleLandanimalsPlantsAnimal tissueand fecesUrineSoluble soilphosphateDecomposers(bacteria andfungi)Loss indrainageRocks andmineralsPhosphatesin solutionDecomposers(bacteria & fungi)Animal tissueand fecesAquaticanimalsPlants andalgaePrecipitatesLoss to deep sediment
9 Water cycle Solar energy Transpiration Evaporation Precipitation _____________________:surface & atmospheric water_____________________: precipitation & plant uptake_____________________: transpiration_____________________: evaporation & runoffWater cycleSolar energyTranspirationWater vaporEvaporationPrecipitationOceansRunoffLakesPercolation in soilAquiferGroundwater
14 Effects of deforestation Why is nitrogen so important?Effects of deforestation40% increase in runoffloss of water60x loss in nitrogen10x loss in calciumloss into surface water80nitrate levels in runoff40loss out of ecosystem!of nitrate (mg/l )Concentration4Deforestation21965196619671968Year
15 Energy flows through ecosystems sunsecondary consumers(carnivores)loss of energyloss of energyprimary consumers(herbivores)producers (plants)
16 Food chains Trophic levels sun feeding relationships Tertiary consumerTrophic levelsfeeding relationshipsstart with ____________________captured by __________1st level of all food chainsfood chains usually go up only 4 or 5 levelsinefficiency of energy transferall levels connect to ____________________top carnivoreLevel 3Secondary consumercarnivoreLevel 2Primary consumerheterotrophsherbivoreLevel 1ProducerautotrophsFungiDecomposersBacteria
17 Inefficiency of energy transfer sunInefficiency of energy transferLoss of energy between levels of food chainTo where is the energy lost? _______________________17%growthenergy lost to daily livingonly this energy moves on to the next level in the food chain33%cellularrespiration50%waste (feces)
18 Ecological pyramid sun Loss of energy between levels of food chain can feed fewer animals in each level1100100,0001,000,000,000
19 Humans in food chainsDynamics of energy through ecosystems have important implications for human populationshow much energy does it take to feed a human?if we are meat eaters?if we are vegetarian?
20 Food webs Food chains are linked together into __________________ Who eats whom?a species may weave into web at more than one levelbearshumanseating meat?eating plants?