9 Eastern LowlandsA flat, coastal plain runs along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.PiedmontBetween plains & Appalachian MountainsContains rolling hills & fast-flowing rivers and streams.
10 Appalachian Highlands West of the coastal plainsGently sloping Appalachian Mountains.Begin in Newfoundland to AlabamaExtend 1,600 milesMore than 400 million years oldEroded by the elements1200 ft ft. elevation
13 Interior LowlandsMainly level land covers a huge expanse of North AmericaFlattened by huge glaciers thousands of years ago.Divided into 3 sub-regions:The Interior PlainsThe Great PlainsCanadian Shield; largest, 2 million sq.miles
14 Interior Plains 1.Between Appalachian Mts. & Mississippi River 2. Known as “America’s Breadbasket” – Most productive soil in the world.Grows millions of bushels of corn, wheat3. Mississippi Drainage Basin – rivers that drain into Mississippi RiverOhio RiverTennessee River
15 Rivers St. Lawrence R. Columbia R. Missouri R. Hudson R. Potomac R. Mississippi R.Platte R.Ohio R.Colorado R.Arkansas R.Brazos R.Rio Grande R.Yukon R.
16 Great Plains . Between Mississippi River & Rocky Mountains Western part of the Mississippi watershed.Contains the Missouri, Platte, Arkansas, & Red RiversStretches from N. Montana to Central TexasTreeless region
19 Canadian Shield Lies farther north Rocky & mainly flat 1500 ft above sea levelAround Hudson Bay
20 The Western Mountains Massive, rugged Rocky Mountains Extends 3,000 miles from Alaska to New MexicoRelatively young= 80 million years oldPeaks more than 12,000 ftHighest peak is Mt. McKinley located in 20,320 feet
21 The Continental Divide Line of highest points in the Rockies that marks the separation b/w rivers flowing eastward and westward.
26 Lake Okeechobee, FLOkeechobee is Swamp Land in Southern Florida
27 The IslandsCanada’s northernmost lands are islands riding the icy seas near the Arctic Circle3 islands are:EllesmereVictoriaBaffinIslands created by volcanic activityAleutian IslandsHawaiian Islands
28 Resources US & Canada’s most important industries: Agricultural Industrial
29 Great Lakes Superior Michigan Huron Erie Ontario These lakes & the St. Lawrence river form one of the world’s major shipping routes.
30 Ocean’s & WaterwaysMississippi River runs almost the length of the 2,357 miles long.Main tributaries - Ohio & Missouri Rivers.Longest & busiest river system is Mississippi-Missouri-OhioCanada’s longest river = Mackenzie River flows to Arctic Ocean
31 Land & ForestsLand is one of the richest natural resources due to fertile soil.Leading food exporter = North America1/2 Canada & 1/3 of US are covered by woodlandsMajor producers of lumber & forest productsUS has more different trees than Canada b/c of the varied climate.
33 Minerals & Fossil Fuels Canadian shield has rich deposits of:Iron oreNickelCopperGoldUraniumCoal - Appalachian Highlands & northern Great PlainsOil & Natural Gas - Great Plains, Alaska, & along the Gulf of Mexico
34 Minerals & Fossil Fuels The US is the Largest consumer of energy resources60 % of energy imported from the middle east countries are OPEC
38 Colder ClimatesA sub arctic climate (tundra) is along the coast of Alaska & CanadaPermafrost would be found in AlaskaRocky Mountains & the Pacific ranges have highland climate & vegetation.See map on page 125
39 Moderate ClimatesA humid continental climate can be found in central & northeastern US & southern Canada.Most of Canada’s population is found in the humid continental climate.
40 Milder ClimatesMilder, dry and tropical climates of N. America are found south of 40º latitude.Much of the US is located here.Most southern states have a humid subtropical climateGreat plains & northern parts of the Great Basin have Semiarid climateHouston has a Humid Subtropical climate
41 Milder Climates Southern California has a Mediterranean climate Mojave and the Sonoran are large desert areas of the Southwest.Only Hawaii and southern Florida have tropical climates.Mount Waialeale on Hawaii is one of the wettest spots on earth. It receives about 460 inches of rain per year.
48 Extreme WeatherAn area of extreme weather in the Great Plains is called “Tornado Alley”Violent thunderstorms, tornadoes and blizzards are caused by warm air from the Gulf of Mexico meeting the cold Canadian air masses.
49 Settlement The 1st inhabitants of N. America were Nomads from Asia Beringia was a land bridge connecting Siberia & AlaskaMost early Americans settled along coastlines and near rivers and streamsAbout 3000 years ago agriculture replaced hunting & gathering as the primary method of food productionEarly American vegetables like corn, beans, & squash are now food staples around the world.
50 Building Cities Early cities built mainly around water. Other factors that affect where cities are build include:ClimateWeatherLandscapeAvailability of natural resourcesJamestown established in May 1607
51 Building Cities Canada’s 2nd largest city is Montréal, Quebec It’s located on a large island where the St. Lawrence & Ottawa rivers meetIn order to make living easier in here, much of the city has been developed underground
53 Building CitiesLos Angeles expanded into valleys & desert like foothills to handle all the people pouring in the areaLarge populations caused air pollution, inadequate water supplies and construction on earthquake-threatened landLos Angeles’ metropolitan area spreads over 4,060 square miles.Los Angeles settled in 1781 by Spain.
55 Overcoming DistancesObstacles faced by early settlers in moving across N. America were huge distances, large bodies of water, formidable landforms, & harsh climates.Early settlers carved overland trails in order to move inland called:Oregon trailSante Fe TrailNational & Wilderness roadsThey also used inland waterways such as the Mississippi & Ohio Rivers.
56 Inland WaterwaysThey built a network of canals to connect bodies of waterThe Erie canal was the 1st navigable waterway b/w the Atlantic & the Great Lakes was built in 1825N. America’s most important deepwater ship route—the St. Lawrence SeawayIt was a joint project of the US & Canada
57 Great Mississippi Flood, 1993 St. Louis, MO before the floodSt. Louis, MO during the floodMississippi Riverfloods dueto weather.St. Louis, MO after the flood
58 Railroads Today, the US has the world’s largest railway system The 1st transcontinental railroad was completed across the US in 1869.
60 Highways The development of automobiles spurred road building. The US has about 4 million miles of roadsCanada has about 560,000 miles of roadsThe Canadians built their roads going East to West to connect principal cities, most people live in the south.
62 HighwaysCanada’s primary roadway is called The Trans-Canada Highway & stretches about 4,860 milesThe US interstate highway system began in the 1950’s and is a network of more than 46,000 miles of roads.