2 Wapusk National Park Just southeast of Churchill MB Wild and remote landscapeOne of world’s largest polar bear maternity denning areasSupports wide variety of wildlifeCurrent stressors include climate change, long-range transport of contaminants, and overabundant snow geese
3 Land UseTerrestrial land base of the Earth is 148,940,000 square kilometersCanada’s total land area 9,984,670 square kilometers (6%)11% of land in Canada is owned privately89% is crown land (provincial or federal government)Responsibility generally falls under provincial government
4 Agriculture in Canada One of the largest producers in the world Exports over $24 billion worth of agricultural productsFive largest sectors are grains and oilseeds, livestock, dairy, horticulture, poultry and eggs5% of grain farms are reported as organic
5 Principle Types of Agriculture Industrialized Agriculture: modern methods, large input of capital and energy and less land and labor than traditional methodsSubsistence Agriculture: traditional methods, depend on labor and large amounts of land
6 Industrialized Agriculture Modern agricultural methodsDeveloped countriesInputsCapitalEnergyChemicalsHigh yields
7 Subsistence Agriculture Traditional agricultural methodsDeveloping countriesFood for familyInputsLaborLand
8 Shifting Cultivation Subsistence agriculture Grow crops, then leave land aloneSlash-and-burn agricultureClear forestGrow cropsSoil loses productivity quicklySupports small populations
9 Nomadic Herding Subsistence agriculture Land not suitable for crops Livestock continually moveWhy?
10 Intercropping Subsistence agriculture Variety of crops in same field PolyculturePlants mature at different timesDifferent crops harvested throughout the year
11 Agricultural Challenges Loss of prime farmlandLoss of domesticated varietiesImproving yieldsCurbing environmental impacts
12 Loss of Agricultural Land Land loss to urbanization and suburban sprawl
13 Loss of Domestic Varieties Farmers using fewer varieties of plants and animalsModern methodsUniformityMaximum productionLoss of genetic diversitySave germplasmTissuesMay need later
14 Increasing Crop Yields Food production has increasedGreen revolutionMid-20th centuryModern methodsHigh-yield varietiesChemicals
15 High-Yield VarietiesDone with breeding and biotechnology
16 Green Revolution Benefits Mexico increased wheat production Indonesia self-sufficient in riceProblemsDeveloping countries dependent on chemicals, machineryHigh energy costsToo many chemicals
17 Increasing Crop Yields Demand for grains will increaseCan’t increase amount of landYields can only increase so muchGenetic engineering could helpDeveloping countries will need better farming methods
18 Increasing Livestock Yields HormonesPromote faster growthEuropean Union limits imports of hormone-treated beef: why?AntibioticsAnimals grow larger (4 – 5%)Resistant bacteriaWHO wants them eliminatedU.S. still using
19 Environmental Impacts Air, water pollutionFeedlot agriculture is the norm
20 Environmental Impacts PesticidesResistanceFarmers use moreResidues on foodLand degradationLoss of productivitySalinizationHabitat fragmentation
28 Rangelands Vegetation has fibrous root system Grazing Can be beneficialCarefully manageCan increase plant diversityDon’t exceed carrying capacity
29 Rangeland Degradation DesertificationProgressive degradationResult of overgrazing and droughtOn the increase
30 Canadian RangelandsOnly 70 million acres are suitable for livestock grazing in CanadaUnder increasing pressure: why?Conservation easementsProtect privately owned land from developmentPublic rangelandsProvincial crown landAgri-Environmental Services Branch
31 Public Canadian Rangelands AESB manages 915,000 hectares of rangelands in Western CanadaConduct biodiversity inventoriesManagement includes seeding, controlled burns, fence construction, rotational grazing, controlling invasive weeds, and protecting habitats of endangered species
32 Public Canadian Rangelands Three essential service programs:Community Pasture ProgramCover Crop Protection ProgramPrairie Shelter Belt Program
33 Forests Less than 1/3 Earth’s area What do we use forests for? Ecosystem servicesHelp regulate biogeochemical cycles“Carbon sinks”Release O2Protect watersheds:how?Provide habitat
43 Deforestation Clearing large expanses of forests Most serious problem facing forests todayWhy is this occurring?Most in Africa andSouth America
44 Results of Deforestation Decreased soil fertilityIncreased soil erosionDesertificationIncreased extinctionRegional and global climate changes: how?
45 Deforestation: Boreal Forests Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, Northern RussiaExtensive by late 1980sUsed for wood, wood fiberAnnual loss = area twice as large as Brazil’s rain forests
46 Tropical Rain ForestsCentral & South America, Africa, SE Asia
47 Deforestation: Tropical Rain Forests Subsistence agricultureFarmers follow roadsSlash-and-burnLater used for ranchingCommercial loggingCattle ranchingDam buildingMining
48 Deforestation: Tropical Dry Forests India, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Egypt, BrazilFuelwoodCharcoal productionVery wasteful4 tons wood run smelter for 5 minutes
49 Important Minerals Sulfides: contain sulphur Oxides: contain oxygen MetalsMalleable, lustrous, conductorsIron, aluminum, copperNonmetallic mineralsOreRock with valuable mineral
50 Economy Enabled highly developed nations to become industrialized Canada’s mineral and mining products accounted for over 17% the nations total domestic exports$40 billion toward the gross domestic product369,000 jobs
51 Extracting Minerals Locate deposit Analyze mineral composition Mine for minerals: many different waysProcess mineralMake product
52 Surface Mining Near the surface Less expensive Overburden removed Open-pitDig quarryIron, copper, gravel
53 Surface Mining Strip mining Dig trench to extract mineral Dig parallel trenchCover old trench with new overburdenSpoil bank
54 Subsurface Mining Minerals deep in ground Less land disturbance More expensiveMore hazardousShaft mineDirectvertical shaftCoal
55 Subsurface MiningSlope mineSlanting passageOre hauled in cars
56 Mining & The Environment Disturbs landLand prone to erosion further damageUses a lot of waterContaminated streamsAcid-mine drainage
57 Impacts of Refining About 80% of mined ore made of impurities Tailings Waste leftbehindLeft in pilesToxic
58 Restoration of Mining Lands When mine no longer profitablePrevents further degradationFilling in and grading the areaPlanting vegetationLarge communityrestoration took placein Sudbury, Ontario inthe early 1970’s
59 Soil: What Is It? More than just dirt! Uppermost layer of Earth’s crustMineral and organic matterLiving organismsWe depend on it: how?
60 Soil Formation Formed from parent material Biological, chemical and physical weathering processesContinuous processTopography plays a role: how?Takes a long time
61 Soil Composition Four main parts Mineral particles Main component From parent materialProvides anchorage and mineralsOrganic matterLiving or formerly living matterHumusAirWater
62 Soil Profile Look at horizons: layers O horizon: surface layer A horizon: topsoilDeep in grassland soilsThinner in forest, tropical soilsB horizon: subsoilC horizon: parent materialMaterials leach through the layers
70 Soil Pollution Physical or chemical change in soil Adversely affects health of organismsSome from fertilizers, pesticidesSalinizationResult of irrigationCan render soiluseless
71 Parks and Protected Areas National parks are managed by Parks CanadaEstablished in 1911There were 42 National Parks and Park Reserves in Canada in 2010National Parks cover 225,000 square kilometers, approximately 2% of total land massNational Marine Conservation Areas
73 National ParksPrimary goal is to protect the natural landscapes that occur in Canada’s 39 natural regionsProtected under federal legislation, the Canada National Parks ActManaged primarily to protect and restore their ecological integrityEcosystem management approach
74 National Parks1989 the endangered spaces campaign was launched by Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) and World Wildlife Fund of CanadaNational MarineConservation Areasare managed forsustainable use.
75 Provincial Parks Managed by agencies within the government departments Management plan is prepared for each parkFace challenges of wildfires, wildlife imbalances, disease, and human impactsEach province has legislation to protect the provincial parks
76 Conservation in Parks Maintain ecological integrity Preserve historical and commemorative placesPromote conservation ethicDemonstrate conservation principles and approaches from United Nations reportsThe 12 Percent Challenge
78 Sustainable Agriculture Less chemicals and antibioticsWater and energy conservationDiverse crops
79 Sustainable Agriculture Organic agricultureNo non-natural chemicalsNo genetic engineeringView the farm as an agroecosystemSecond green revolution!
80 Genetic Engineering Move genes from one species to another Could improve agriculture
81 Potential Benefits of GM Crops Decrease nutritional deficiencies worldwide: Golden RiceDecreased use of pesticidesHeartier plantsFeed the worldMore productive farm animalsBetter animal vaccines
82 Potential Drawbacks of GM Crops Cross-pollination with native speciesWidespread crop failureFood allergiesLong-term impacts unknown
83 Conservation Tillage Residues from previous crops left in soil Reduces erosion up to 70%Soil has more organic materialDrawbacks?
84 Crop RotationPlanting a series crops in the same field over a period of yearsDecreases insect damageReduces erosionRotated crops dependon where you farm
85 TerracingUsed on very steep slopesLike stairsVery expensive!
86 Other Methods Contour plowing Farm with the natural contours of the landStrip croppingStrips of differing crops
87 Soil Reclamation Badly eroded land Prevent further erosion Seed bare groundPlant shelterbeltsRestore soil fertilitySoil must recover firstRestrict farming?
88 Soil Conservation Policies Canada lagging behindIn the United States, Food Security Act of 1985Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)Voluntary programTake land out of production for 10–15 yearsReceive subsidyReduced soil erosionWildlife habitat
89 Eco Canada Career Focus Consider a career as a remediation specialistBe involved in the planning of removing contamination from soil, groundwater, and other natural sites
90 Case Study: Industrial Ecosystems Industrial ecologyEfficient use of resources“Wastes” are potential productsMimic natural ecosystemsKalundborg, DenmarkLink different industries