Presentation on theme: "International Economics. Absolute vs Comparative Advantage Absolute: a country’s ability to produce more of a given product than another country Comparative:"— Presentation transcript:
Absolute vs Comparative Advantage Absolute: a country’s ability to produce more of a given product than another country Comparative: a country’s ability to produce a product more efficiently than another country (lower opportunity cost) [Example: Say you have John who makes $300 an hour and he hires a maid who works for $25 an hour. It takes John 1 hour to clean his house compared to his maid who takes 8 hours to clean his house. John has an absolute advantage over his maid but the maid has a comparative advantage. This is because if John cleans his house by himself, he loses $300. If he hires the maid, he makes a profit of $100.]
Another example… CoconutsFish A 1010 B 48 The 10 represents the coconuts of A if that’s all they do. If they spend half their time getting coconuts, they’d have 5 coconuts and 5 fish. The same is true of B. If they specialize and trade, they both benefit.
Balance of payments The difference between the amount paid and the amount received in international trade. Protectionists vs. Free-traders: trade barriers to protect US industries (like steel) vs. those who oppose trade barriers. Defense: produce own weapons at higher cost & lower efficiency or import weapons? Protecting jobs: should we, or should companies compete?
Trade Barriers Tariffs: tax on imports (hurts international trade—almost stopped in 1930s!) Most Favored Nation clause: country that gets same tariff reduction as another country (China) NAFTA: North American Trade Agreement (1993): reduced tariffs between Canada, the US & Mexico Very controversial—predicted huge job losses Some jobs lost to Mexico, but not many DRAMATIC growth in trade between the 3
More barriers to trade… Embargo: restriction on export or import of a commodity in trade (oil) Quota: limit on the amount of a good that can be allowed into a country (Japanese cars in the US in 1970s—drove prices of all cars up) Subsidy: government payments to encourage an economic activity (milk, corn, wheat, soybean farmers) Standards: ways to keep imported products out of a country: Health inspections on Argentina’s beef, license to import, irradiated beef
Cooperation in trade European Union [EU]: formed in 1993 No barriers regulating the flow of capital, workers, or goods & services between member countries Common passports—can travel anywhere to trade, invest, vacation, work, etc. 2002: euro introduced—common currency replaced individual currencies
Other economic communities… ASEAN: Association for Southeast Asian Nations (1967): Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand Works to promote peace, stability, growth & liberal free trade policies OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (mostly in Middle East): formed in 1960 to restrict production to raise prices
Exchange rates Foreign exchange rate: the price of one country’s currency in terms of another country’s currency (flexible/floating) Demand for foreign products pushes dollar’s value down, make imports more expensive Dollar’s value reflects health of US economy Trade deficit: value of imports exceeds value of exports—reduces dollar’s value, rising unemployment Trade surplus: value of exports exceeds value of imports—raises dollar’s value, falling unemployment
Exchange rate table CodeCountryUnits/USDUSD/Unit ARP Argentina (Peso) 2.9450 0.3396 AUD Australia (Dollar) 1.5205 0.6577 BSD Bahamas (Dollar) 1.0000 1.0000 BRL Brazil (Real) 2.91490.3431 CAD Canada (Dollar) 1.3659 0.7321 USD: US Dollar Units/USD: dollar exchange rate in other currency ($1.00=2.94 pesos) USD/Units: other currency’s exchange rate to the dollar (1 peso=34 cents)