2 What’s inside Introduction 1 Part I - Application What are Hazardous ChemicalsForms of Hazardous ChemicalsEffects of Hazardous ChemicalsRoutes of EntryControl StrategiesHierarchy of ControlsThree Ways to Inform WorkersChemical Manufacturer RequirementsDistributor RequirementsEmployer RequirementsRules Apply To…Rules Do Not Apply To…Part II - The Written ProgramGeneral RequirementsSample Energy Control PlanExerciseLabel RequirementsExerciseMaterial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)Sample MSDSExerciseInformation and TrainingOSHA InspectionsTrade SecretsGetting StartedAppendicesGrouping ChemicalsTraining Hazard CommunicationHazard Communication Training Program Audit 39
4 Part I – Application Solids Liquids Gases r What are “Hazardous Chemicals”?Any chemical which is a physical or health hazard.Physical hazards - reactions that could occur if chemicals are handled or stored improperly. This could result in a fire, explosion, and/or toxic gas release.Health hazards - health effects caused directly by the chemicals themselves, not an injury resulting from a reaction. All chemical materials can cause health problems under the wrong conditions.r Forms of Hazardous ChemicalsDusts are finely divided particles. Example - wood dust.Fumes are even smaller particles usually formed when solid metal is heated and vaporized, and then condenses as tiny particles.Fibers are similar to dusts but are of an elongated shape. Examples - asbestos and fiberglass.Mists are liquid droplets that have been sprayed into the atmosphere.Vapors are gases formed when liquid evaporates.Gases are substances that are normally airborne at room temperature. A vapor is the gaseous phase of a substance which is a normally a liquid or solid at room temperature.SolidsLiquidsGases
5 r Effects of ChemicalsThe effects of chemicals on the human body depend on several factors:1. The form of the chemical:solid, liquid, or gas2. How the chemical contacts the body:ingestion, inhalation, or absorption3. The amount, or dose, the body receives4. How toxic, or poisonous the chemical is.r Routes of Entry1. Ingestion2. Inhalation3. Absorption4. InjectionWhich route of entry is most common?
6 r Control StrategiesIn determining what control strategies to use, a hierarchy of controls serves as a guide to ensure the most effective strategies are used. The most desirable control strategy seeks to control the hazard at the source by using such strategies as total enclosure or substitution of a safer chemical. It also attempts to control the hazardous chemical along the path by using such measures as ventilation. Next, it tries to control the effects of hazardous chemicals by ensuring minimum exposure. This is accomplished by incorporating safer work practices through written safety policies, rules, supervision and training. Lastly, methods are used to control the hazardous chemical at the worker by using personal protective equipment.r Hierarchy of Controls1. Engineering Controls - Replacing, redesigning, enclosing, substitution.Example: Replacing highly toxic chemicals with less toxic chemicals.2. Administrative Controls - Scheduling, changing procedures.Example: Scheduling work so that there is less exposure to an employee.3. Personal Protective Equipment - in conjunction with the other two strategies.Example: Gloves, apron, etc.
7 r Three Ways to Inform Workers 1. Labels2. MSDS3. Trainingr Chemical ManufacturersAssess hazardsDistribute MSDSProduce and revise label for containerr DistributorsTransmit MSDSRetails/Wholesale distributors must:1. Provide MSDS to commercial accounts & post sign.2. Provide hazardous chemical manufacturer address/phone to employers who do not have commercial account.r EmployersProvide information
8 r Rules apply to: r Rules do not apply to: Any chemical that employees may be exposed to under normal conditions in the workplace or in a foreseeable emergency.r Rules do not apply to:Hazardous wastes as defined by Solid Waste Disposal Act and subject to EPA.Hazardous substances as defined by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and subject to EPA.Tobacco or tobacco products.Wood or wood products, including lumber which will not be processed, where only flammable or combustible hazards exist. Wood or wood products which have been treated with a hazardous chemical covered by the standard, and wood which may be subsequently sawed or cut, generating dust, are not exempted.Articles - a manufactured item other than a fluid or particle that does not release more than minute or trace amounts of hazardous chemicals and does not pose physical or health hazard.Food or alcoholic beverages sold, used, or prepared in a retail establishment. Foods intended for personal consumption.Drugs as defined by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, in solid, final form for direct administration to a patient.Drugs packaged by manufacturers for sale in retail establishments (e.g., over-the-counter drugs).Drugs intended for personal consumption (e.g., first aid supplies).Consumer products or hazardous substances defined by Consumer Product Safety Act and Federal Hazardous Substances Act used in same manner and ranges of exposure (frequency and duration) as that experienced by consumers.Nuisance particulates that do not pose physical or health hazards.Ionizing and nonionizing radiation.Biological hazards.Workers who encounter chemicals only in non-routine, isolated instances. (e.g., bank tellers, office workers)
9 Part II - The Written Program r Must be available to:1. Employee2. Employee representative3. OSHA representativer Three subject areas:1. Labels2. MSDS3. Trainingr Other subject areas:Hazardous chemicals listNon-routine proceduresPipe and piping systemsMobile unit proceduresMulti-employer proceduresExercise: Writing an effective Hazard Communication Plan1. Your group will be assigned a section of the sample written program.2. List what your group believes to be the most important points of the section you read.3. Describe why you think the points you have listed are important.4. Be prepared to discuss your conclusions to the class.
14 Hazardous Chemical List Exercise: Design a hazardous chemical list that will help employees quickly locate a specific MSDS.Hazardous Chemical List
15 Label Requirements r Primary container label information: 1. Identification of chemical2. Appropriate warning hazard - Specifies physical or health hazard including target organ effects.3. Manufacturer's name and addressr Secondary container label information:2. Appropriate warning hazard May use words, pictures, symbols or combination to provide general information about hazards.BenzeneFlammableCarcinogenicSkin & Eye IrritantBenCorp555 W Fifth StreetAnytown CA 95001Primary Container - used by the chemical manufacture, distributor, or importer to store hazardous chemicals.BenzeneFlammableCarcinogenicSkin & Eye IrritantSecondary container -used by the employer to store hazardous chemical.
16 r Portable container label requirements: None - if used immediately. Includes drugs dispensed by a pharmacy to health care provider for direct administration to a patient.r Stationary process container label requirementsSigns, placards, process sheets, batch tickets, operating procedures, other written materials.Must identify chemical and appropriate hazard warningPortable container - used to transfer or immediately use hazardous chemicals.Stationary process container - Usually a large unmovable tank or vessel used to store hazardous chemicals.
17 r Never deface or remove labels Unless container is immediately marked with the required information.There is no need to affix a new label if old label meet labeling requirements.r Must be legible and in Englishr Prominently displayedr Hazard Communication labels are not required on:Pesticides subject to Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.Chemical Substances or mixtures subject to Toxic Substances Control Act (EPA)Food, food additives, color additives, drugs, cosmetics, or medical or veterinary devices or products regulated by Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act and subject to FDA or Department of Agriculture.Distilled spirits (beverage alcohols), wine or malt beverages intended for nonindustrial use when regulated by the Federal Alcohol Administration Act and subject to Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms.Agricultural or vegetable seeds treated with pesticides and labeled in accordance with the Federal Seed Act issued by the Department of Agriculture.r Solid materials(metal, wood, plastic):Label required only with initial shipment. Need not be included with subsequent shipments unless information on the label changes.
18 Exercise: Find out what’s wrong with these labels? Label category: ________________________What’s wrong?______________________________________________________________What’s might be the result? _______________Label category: ________________________What’s wrong?______________________________________________________________What’s might be the result? _______________Label category: ________________________What’s wrong?______________________________________________________________What’s might be the result? _______________
19 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) r For all hazardous chemicalsMay group hazards on MSDS (See appendix)r Readily available during normal work hoursr Immediately accessible during emergenciesWhat is the difference between “readily available” and “immediately accessible”?r Providing the MSDS:1. Initial shipment2. First shipment after updater MSDS Changesr Failure to provide the MSDSWhat should you do if you do not receive an MSDS for the chemical?
20 What’s best? Computer or paper? r Remote work sitesMSDS may be kept at central locationMust be readily availableThey must be immediately accessibleWhat’s the best procedure for meeting the above criteria when at remote work sites?r Kept in any formPaperComputerWhat’s best? Computer or paper?
21 Sample Material Safety Data Sheet CASEWAY CASEVILLE MI SC 125MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETFSC: 6810NIIN: 00F004210Manufacturer's CAGE: CASEWPart No. Indicator: APart Number/Trade Name: SC 125========================================================================General InformationCompany's Name: CASEWAY/CASEVILLE, MI 48725Company's Emerg Ph #: (517)Record No. For Safety Entry: 001Tot Safety Entries This Stk#: 001Date MSDS Prepared: 01JAN87Safety Data Review Date: 29DEC86MSDS Serial Number: BBPSRIngredients/Identity InformationProprietary: NOIngredient: METHYLENE CHLORIDE (SARA III)Ingredient Sequence Number: 01NIOSH (RTECS) Number: PACAS Number:OSHA PEL: 500 PPM/C,1000; Z2ACGIH TLV: 50 PPM, A2; 9192
22 ======================================================================== Physical/Chemical CharacteristicsAppearance And Odor: COLORLESS LIQUID, ETHER-LIKE ODORBoiling Point: 104FVapor Pressure (MM Hg/70 F): 352Vapor Density (Air=1): 2.93Specific Gravity: 1.32Solubility In Water: SLIGHTFire and Explosion Hazard DataFlash Point: NONEExtinguishing Media: FOAM, DRY CHEMICAL, CO2Special Fire Fighting Proc: USE SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUSUnusual Fire And Expl Hazrds: AT HIGH TEMPERATURES METHYLENE CHLORIDE CANDECOMPOSE, GIVING OFF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE GAS/PHOSGENE.Reactivity DataStability: YESCond To Avoid (Stability): OPEN FLAMES, ELECTRICAL ARCMaterials To Avoid: ALUMINUM, TITANIUM, PURE OXYGEN AND ALKALI METALSHazardous Decomp Products: HYDROGEN CHLORIDE/PHOSGENE/TOXIC PROD IN SMALLQUANTITIES.Hazardous Poly Occur: NO
23 ======================================================================== Health Hazard DataSigns/Symptoms Of Overexp: HEADACHE/METAL CONFUSION/DEPRESSION/FATIGUSE/LOSS OF APPETTIE/NAUSEA/VOMITING/COUGH/LOSS BALANCE.Emergency/First Aid Proc: REMOVE PATIENT IMMEDIATELY FROM THE CONTAMINATEDAREA. OBTAIN MEDICAL ASSITANCE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. WASH THOROUGHLY WITH WATER ANY BODY AREAS CONTAMINATED WITH METHYLENE CHLORIDE. IF INGESTED, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.Precautions for Safe Handling and UseSteps If Matl Released/Spill: CONTAIN BY DIKING OR OBSORBING ON ANABSORBENT MATERIAL. USE ADEQUATE PERSONAL PROTEIVE EQUIPMENT WHEN CLEANING UP.Waste Disposal Method: COMPLY WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.Precautions-Handling/Storing: UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS METHYLENE CHLORIDEMAY BE STORED SATISFACTORILY IN GALVANIZED, IRON, BCK IRON, OR STEEL. STORE DRUMS IN A COOL PLACE.Other Precautions: VENTILATION SHOULD BE PROVIDED AT THE FLOOR LEVEL. DONOT STORE IN PITS, DEPRESSIONS, BASEMENTS OR UNVENTILATED AREAS.
24 ======================================================================== Control MeasuresRespiratory Protection: SCBA/POSITIVE PRESS HOSEMASKS/ARILINE MASK INPOORLY VENTILATED AREAVentilation: LOCAL EXHAUST SUFFICIENT TO MAINTAIN TLV.Protective Gloves: NEOPRENE/RUBBEREye Protection: GOGGLESOther Protective Equipment: NEOPRENE APRON/BOOTS & ARM GUARDS TO PREVENTCONTAMINATION.Suppl. Safety & Health Data: MSDS DATE: JAN 1986.=========================================================================Transportation DataDisposal DataDisposal Data Action Code: ADisposal Data Review Date: 88055Landfill Ban Item: YESDisposal Supplemental Data: MSDS DATE: JAN IN CASE OF ACCIDENTALEXPOSURE OR DISCHARGE, CONSULT HEALTH AND SAFETY FILE FOR PRECAUTIONS.1st EPA Haz Wst Char New: TOXIC (T)1st EPA Acute Hazard New: NOLabel Data=========================================================================Label Required: YESSpecial Hazard Precautions: HEADACHE/METAL CONFUSION/DEPRESSION/FATIGUSE/LOSS OF APPETTIE/NAUSEA/VOMITING/COUGH/LOSS BALANCE.Label Name: CASEWAY/CASEVILLE, MI 48725Label Emergency Number: 517)=======================================================================
25 Severe hydrofluoric Acid Burns at XYZ Power Wash Exercise: Read the following accident scenario and answer the questions which follow.Severe hydrofluoric Acid Burns at XYZ Power WashXYZ Power Wash uses dilute hydrofluoric acid (HF), a clear, colorless liquid with mild detergent odor, to wash industrial vehicles with a mobile pressurized cleaning system. The company has seven employees. In cleaning operations, the company mainly uses dilute HF (0.1%) at all their operations. However, a few contracts require the use of concentrated HF (4 - 10%) to provide better brightening of aluminum truck parts.The victim, Mr. Jones, stated he had received severe chemical burns on his hands during a powerwash operation in the pit area at Jupiter Transport while preparing to clean a vehicle. Jupiter Transport did not want Mr. Jones to use the XYZ concentration, but rather their own concentration at 10% HF. He was filling a garden sprayer with the 10% HF which subsequently splashed on his gloves and forearms. Mr. Jones stated that, since he did not feel any pain, or stinging, he did not worry about getting his hands wet. Later that evening, his hand and forearm began to ache. Eventually he hurt so much that he went to the the local hospital emergency room where he received immediate treatment for HF burns. However, due to the delayed treatment, he suffered severe damage to tissue and the bones of his hand. (Flourosis of the bone: fluorine ions replace calcium in the bone. As a result part of his hand had to be amputated.)Mr. Smith, the employer, stated that Mr. Jones had received training pertaining to the safe handling of HF and was informed to wear gloves when working with the concentrated HF. However, he states that Mr. Jones was not wearing gloves when the accident occurred. No written documentation of training could be located. Mr. Smith provided a statement by Mr. Bill, of Jupiter Transport stating he observed the above incident and warned Mr. Jones to wear gloves while handling HF. Mr. Jones stated that he had never been provided hazard communication training on this or any other chemical used by XYZ and denies speaking to Mr. Bill a the time of his accident. Employee interviews substantiates Mr. Jones’ claim that hazard communication training was not being accomplished. No eye wash or shower facilities were available in the vicinity of the area where employees handle 10% HF.Emergency procedures for HF include: Skin - Immediately flush contaminated skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention if irritation develops. Skin contact, even with very diluted solutions hydrofluoric acid should be considered dangerous. Solutions of less than 2 percent can cause burns. The process of tissue destruction and neutralization of hydrofluoric acid can be prolonged for days, unlike other acids which are rapidly neutralized. For solutions of less than 20 to 50 percent HF, damage may occur without any early warning sensation of pain or redness up to 24 hours. Eyes - Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Get medical attention at once. Inhalation - Move exposed person to fresh air. If irritation persists, get medical attention. Ingestion - If swallowed, do not induce vomiting. If victim is conscious give plenty of water to drink. Get medical attention at once.What were the surfaces causes of this accident?What were the root causes?What simple procedure could have prevented Mr. Jones from getting burned?
26 Information & Training r When to train:1. Initial assignment2. Whenever a new hazard is introducedr Information includes:1. Hazard communication rules2. Hazardous tasks3. Location of written programr Specific training for those who work with hazardous chemical:1. Methods to detect hazardous chemicals.2. Physical and health hazards.3. Measures to protect employees.4. Specific company hazard communication program procedures.5. May train hazards by group.r Best Training MethodsDemonstrate proper use of PPE and how to use the chemical.Ask the employee questions to make sure they understand.Train where the chemical will be used.
27 OSHA Inspections Getting started Trade Secrets The written program What the compliance officer will inspect:The written programWho’s responsible?Proper labelingMaterial Safety Data SheetsInformation and Training“What are the procedures for...”?Trade SecretsManufacturer, distributor cannot withhold chemical identity from health professional in an emergency.Getting started1. Become familiar with the standard.2. Identify responsible staff.3. Identify hazardous chemicals in your workplace.4. Prepare and implement a written plan.5. Prepare and conduct a training program.6. Monitor the program. Revise as needed.
29 Grouping Hazardous Chemicals If your company uses many chemicals in the normal course of work, it may be impractical to train employees on each chemical to which they may be exposed. The hazard communication standard does allow employers to group chemicals by hazardous characteristics for the purpose of MSDS maintenance and training. On the following pages are examples of hazardous chemical groupings. It is extremely important that employees who use hazardous chemicals on a regular basis are familiar with handling procedures, associated hazards, proper personal protective equipment, and emergency procedures for those chemicals. In an emergency, you will probably not have time to review response actions in the MSDS. Bottom line... know your chemicals and know emergency procedures.Note: The following are examples only and may not be appropriate for your workplace. Be sure to develop hazardous chemical groupings based on the specific chemicals in use by your employer.CreditsPortions of the information on the effects and forms of chemicals were provided in this workbook were obtained with permission from the manual, Chemical Health Hazards in the Oregon Forest Products Industry, University of Oregon Labor and Education Research Center, June Information is for training purposes only.Information of the various hazard groupings were obtained with permission from, HAZCOM, A Guide to the Hazard Communication Program of Kaiser Permanente - Northwest Region, 3rd edition, Information is for training purposes only.
30 AlcoholA colorless liquid that evaporates quickly and has a strong odor.Can be burned as fuel or used as a cleaning, disinfecting agent or solvent. Is the intoxicant ingredient in liquor (ethyl alcohol).These are extremely flammable liquidsIngestion: Long-term chronic effects have been well known (liver damage, dizziness, nausea, and blindness).Inhalation: Concentrated amounts can produce similar effects to ingestion.Skin/Eye contact: Vapors can cause eye irritation and extended contact with skin causes drying, chapping, and dermatitis.Chronic effects: Can cause degenerative changes in liver, kidney and brain. Gastritis and cirrhosis of the liver are possible. Known to be a CNS and respiratory depressant.Do not store large quantities of alcohol anywhere except in flammable-proof storage cabinet or area.Avoid prolonged inhalation of any vapors.Extremely volatile liquids (meaning they easily evaporate), so keep in closed containers.Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.Ethyl alcoholMethyl alcoholIsopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol)DefinitionUsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
31 Chemotherapy Drugs Definition Drugs are used in treatment of cancer patients. Can be liquid, powder, or tablet form.Medical treatment of patients.No physical hazards.Highly toxic.All are known to cause cancer in animals and are considered to be potential cancer agents in humans.May be absorbed through the skin.May cause eye problems and possible skin irritation.Use Biological Safety Cabinet for preparation.Wash thoroughly before eating, drinking, or smoking.No eating, drinking smoking, chewing gum, applying cosmetics or storage of food near preparation area.All used equipment should be placed in Hazardous Waste Container for incineration.Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.CEENU Cytoxan Platinol Mexate Megace MutamycinUsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
32 Compressed Gases Definition A gas or mixture of gases having, in container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70 deg. F., or an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130 deg. F., or a liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100 deg. F.Medical gases.Can be "explosive" if the gases escape quickly due to broken valves.They may be flammable or support combustion (i.e., oxygen).Inhalation concerns.Frostbite.Protect cylinders from physical damage. Do not allow temperatures to exceed 130 degrees F.Store upright.Well ventilated area is extremely important.When a spill or leak occurs, get exposed individual to fresh air, loosen their clothing.Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.Nitrous Oxide: Risk from chronic exposure. Environment should be regularly monitored to ensure that employees are not exposed to hazardous vapor concentrations. Possible problem in recovery rooms from patients exhaling.Oxygen: Prolonged breathing of high concentrations may lead to toxic effects involving the lungs, central nervous system, and eyes.Nitrogen: Can cause suffocation without warning by reduction of the oxygen level in the air.Ethylene Oxide: Can cause frostbite through skin or eye contact. Contact lenses should not be worn. This is considered to be a cancer and reproductive hazard.UsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
33 Corrosives Definition Corrosives: Liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at the site of contact.Acid: Any compound that can react with a base to form a salt. pH: <7 (corrosive = 1-3).Base: Any substance that removes hydrogen ions from an acid and combines with it in a chemical reaction. pH: >7 (corrosive 11-14)Acid: Cleaning metals and other products; chemical reactions.Base: Manufacturing soap, chemical synthesis, washing powders, household drainpipe cleaning agents, blood sugar testing tablets.As the pH moves closer to "1" or "14", the more corrosive the properties.Generally considered to be nonflammable.Very reactive with each other and other chemicals.Ingestion: Causes severe and rapid skin damage, being destructive to any tissue. A corrosive chemical product causes more serious burns of the esophagus and upper GI than the granular products.Inhalation: Fumes from either concentrate can be irritating to respiratory tract.Skin or Eye Contact: All can burn the skin and are dependent on concentration and duration of contact. This category can produce some of the most severe chemical eye injuries -- conjunctivitis or corneal destruction.Effects of these chemicals are usually so immediate with concentrated chemicals that chronic effects are just residuals of corrosive damage.Never mix with other chemicals without proper procedures -- poisonous gases can be released through chemical reactions. Use concentrated solutions in well-ventilated areas (i.e., under hoods for some acids). Avoid any prolonged exposure to diluted substances.Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Bleach (Clorox) Nitric acidAmmonia Toilet bowl cleaners Oven cleanersUsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
34 Flammables Definition Flammable liquids have a flashpoint below 100 F. Flashpoint means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite.Flammable gases are gases which will ignite at less than 13% air or whose upper flammability limit is more than 12% of its lower limit.Flammable aerosols yield a flame projection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback at any degree of valve opening.Flammable solid is a solid other than a blasting agent or explosive that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. It ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis.Medical gases. Fuels. Solvents.Important to know the flammability of gases -- but if unknown, treat as flammable.Usually all gases are explosive due to the fact they are compressed.Important to know flashpoint of products as they present a very real fire hazard if present in open containers near an ignition source.Inhalation concerns, irritants to both eyes and skin.Well-ventilated area is extremely important.Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.Combustible Liquids:Phenol, mineral spirits, methyl cellosolve, fuel oilsFlammable Liquids:Gasoline, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcoholFlammable Gases:Butane, propaneUsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
35 Heavy Metals Definition Heavy metal salts are very poisonous if taken internally because they destroy protein in the body.Found in a variety of products (see info on specific metals).Heavy metals are considered to be a major problem in the environment.There are often unrecognized, poorly treated and severe chronic and accumulative side effects.Primary route of entry is ingestion -- good hygiene is important on the job.The body is unable to rid itself of many of these heavy metals and they can accumulate and interfere with normal cellular functions.Good hygiene is imperative -- poisoning can result with careless, repeated massive skin contact.Careful waste disposal methods are essential to prevent environmental pollution.Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.Lead: Found in old paints. Colored comics in newspapers. Colored inserts in magazines. Storage batteries. Antiknock in gasolines.Lead Arsenite and Arsenite: Found in pesticides. Can be exposed through inhalation.Zinc: Often found in deodorants or disinfectants. Inhalation can result from welding, causing fevers, chills, vomiting.Mercury: Free metal -- ingesting is little threat.Inhalation: extreme hazard resulting in chronic effects if mercury spill is not cleaned up appropriately.UsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
36 OxidizersDefinitionA chemical that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials.Varied.It is not combustible, but it produces heat upon reaction with combustibles and may cause ignition. Increases the flammability of combustible, organic, and readily oxidizable materials.Inhalation: Vapors are corrosive and irritating to the respiratory tract. Inhalation of mist may burn the mucous membrane of the nose and throat.Ingestion: Corrosive and irritating to the mouth, throat and abdomen. Large doses may cause symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea as well as blistering or tissue destruction.Skin Contact: Irritating in contact with the skin. Symptoms may include discoloration of skin and pain.Eye Contact: Vapors are very corrosive and irritating to the eyes. Symptoms include pain, redness, blurred vision. Splashes may cause tissue destruction.Chronic Effects: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems or impaired respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.Use in well-ventilated areas.Maintain eye wash fountain and shower facilities in work area.Store in a cool, well-ventilated dark area separated from combustible substances, reducing agents, strong bases, and organics.Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.Hydrogen Peroxide, 30%BleachUsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
37 PetroleumDefinitionAn oily, liquid solution, yellowish-green to black in color, occurring naturally in some rock formations. Distillation yields paraffin, kerosene, benzene, naptha, fuel oil, gasoline, etc.Wide uses as fuel sources, refrigerants, propellants, pesticides, lubricants, solvents, degreasers, food additives.General liquids which will burn and can explode.Vapors have been known to expand and split unvented containers.Inhalation: If prolonged, can cause a pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhage.Skin Contact: Can cause dermatitis (diesel fuel tends to be more irritating because of additives).Chronic Effects: Include anesthetic and central nervous system depression as well as lung damage.Appropriate storage and venting of containers is necessary.Use in well-ventilated areas and avoid prolonged inhalation.Wash off skin as soon as possible after contact.Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.Kerosene Gasoline Lighter Fluid Paraffin mixturesFuel oil High Vacuum GreaseUsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
38 Pesticides Definition A spray mixture used to kill insects, spiders, rodents, or other pests.Used to eliminate pests.Many are aerosol products and can rocket or explode in heat or fire.Inhalation: Product spray mist or fog may cause irritation to nose, throat and lungs if adequate ventilation is not employed.Chronic Effects: Aspiration of material into lungs can cause chemical pneumonitis which can be fatal.Pre-existing skin, eye, and lung disorders may be aggravated by exposure to these products.Use with adequate ventilation.Wash hands with soap and water before eating, smoking, drinking, or using toilet facilities.Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.Raid House and Garden Bug KillerInsect KillerUsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
39 SolventsDefinitionAn organic substance used for dissolving another substance.Are an important part of everyday life.Found in housekeeping, maintenance, hobby activities, and labs.Nearly all will burn and explode.Volatile solvents evaporate readily, with a small amount of liquid making a large amount of vapor or gas.Many solvent vapors are heavier than air and sink to the floor.May be the obscure cause of vague symptoms or serious disability -- all are toxic to varying degrees.Inhalation: Can cause damage to lungs or kidneys in high concentrations -- have a rapid narcotic, anesthetic action.Skin/Eye Contact: All can cause dermatitis by their action in removing normal skin oils by sensitizing and all will irritate the eye.Chronic Effects: many can cause cumulative systemic damage by repeated exposures to low but unsafe concentrations. Target organs -- blood and blood forming organs, liver, kidneys, nervous system.Use out doors or in well-ventilated area.Avoid splashes.Wash hands well after use and before eating or smoking.Keep pilot lights, sparking motors, cigarettes, or other ignition sources at a distance (volatile solvents evaporate readily).Follow MSDS guidelines for specific chemicals.2-butoxyethanol (Carpet protector, Formula 510, True Blue).1,1,1,-trichloroethane (Stainless steel cleaner)Acetone Trichlorofluoroethane (Freon) XyleneUsesPhysical Propertiesand HazardsHealth HazardsPrecautionswith usePersonalProtectiveEquipmentExamples
40 Training Hazard Communication Each employee who may be “exposed” to hazardous chemicals when working must be provided information and trained prior to initial assignment to work with a hazardous chemical, and whenever the hazard changes. “Exposure” or “exposed” under the rule means that “an employee is subjected to a hazardous chemical in the course of employment through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption, etc.) and includes potential (e.g., accidental or possible) exposure.”Information and training may be done either by individual chemical, or by categories of hazards (such as flammability, insecticides, herbicides, or shop chemicals).Information and training is a critical part of the hazard communication program. Information regarding hazards and protective measures are provided to workers through written labels and material safety data sheets.Through effective information and training, workers will learn to read and understand such information, determine how it can be obtained and used in their own workplaces, and understand the risks of exposure to the chemicals in their workplaces as well as the ways to protect themselves.You want to create a climate where workers feel free to ask questions. This will help you to ensure that the information is understood. Remember that the underlying purpose of the hazard communication rule is to reduce the incidence of chemical source illnesses and injuries. This will be accomplished by modifying behavior through the provision of hazard information and information about protective measures.
41 Hazard Communication Training Program Audit Does the training cover all types of harmful chemicals employees may come in contact with under normal usage and foreseeable emergencies?Are your workers familiar with the different types of chemicals and the major hazards associated with them (i.e. solvents, pesticides, corrosives)?Are your employees aware of specific requirements in the CFR Hazard Communication Rules (Written hazard communication program, labeling, MSDSs)?Does your program train employees in operations where hazardous chemicals are present and the location and availability of your written hazard communication program, including lists of chemicals and MSDSs?Does your training program include the explanation of labels and warnings that have been established in their work area?Do your employees understand methods to detect the presence or release of chemicals in the workplace?Does your training program provide information on appropriate first aid procedures in the event of an emergency?Does the training include explanation of MSDSs, and how employees can obtain and use the information?Have you worked out a system to ensure that new employees are trained?Have you developed a system to make sure that additional training is provided if a new hazardous substance is introduced into the work area?Do you have a system to ensure that current (up-to-date) MSDSs are in work areas where the chemicals are used?If you become aware of new hazards relating to the chemical in use, do you have a system for informing employees?If you have employees who only perform hand labor operations, have you provided them with the OSHA brochure, information as to work areas where chemicals are present, access to the written program, access to the MSDSs and met the training requirements of the Worker Protection Standard?
42 The heaviest element known to science was recently discovered. Optional HandoutThe heaviest element known to science was recently discovered.Investigators at a major research institution recently discovered the heaviest element known to science and have tentatively named it Administratium.Administratium has no protons or electrons, thus having an atomic number of 0. It has, however, 1 neutron, 125 assistant neutrons, 75 vice neutrons and 111 assistant vice neutrons, giving it an atomic mass of 312.These 312 particles are held together by a force that involves the continuous exchange of meson-like particles called morons. They are surrounded by vast quantities of lepton-like particles called peons.Since it has no electrons, Administratium is inert. However, it cannot be deleted chemically, as it impedes every reaction it comes into contact with. According to the discoverers, a minute amount of Administratium caused one reaction to take over four days to complete when it would have normally occurred in less than a second.Administratium has a half-life of approximately three years. However, it does not decay in the usual way, but instead undergoes a reorganization in which a portion of the assistant neutrons, vice neutrons and assistant vice neutrons exchange places. In fact, Administratium's masswill actually increase over time, since with each reorganization some of the morons inevitably become neutrons, forming new isotopes. This characteristic of moron promotion leads some scientists to speculate that Administratium is spontaneously formed whenever moron concentration reaches a certain level.This hypothetical quantity is referred to as the Critical Morass.