2 Leadership is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals. Leadership is a continuous process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically towards achieving objectives.Leaders emerge within a group.
3 There are various notions about formation of a leader There are various notions about formation of a leader. These are explained in form of “LEADERSHIP THEORIES”.
4 Trait theories Traits are distinguishing personal characteristics Trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadershipTrait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders.
5 TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP GHISELLI LEADERS ARE “BORN,” NOT MADEPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICSAPPEARANCE, HEIGHT, AGEPERSONALITYEXTROVERSION, PERSISTENCE, SELF-ASSURANCE, DECISIVENESSINTELLIGENCEKNOWLEDGE, ABILITY, JUDGMENTSOCIAL CHARACTERISTICSTACT, DIPLOMACY, SOCIABILITY, FLUENCYGreat Man Theory: Individuals are born either with or without the necessary traits for leadershipThis theory attempts to determine a list of distinctive characteristics accounting for leadership effectiveness.
6 THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS *** EXTROVERSION (AMBITION, ENERGY) ** CONSCIENTIOUSNESS** OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE* EMOTIONAL STABILITY (SELF-CONFIDENCE) AGREEABLENESS
7 Trait theories of leadership sought personality, social, physical or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders from non leaders.Some important traits are- ambition and energy, desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self confidence, intelligence, job related knowledge, etc.
8 Specific Traits related to leadership effectiveness High energy level and stress toleranceSelf ConfidenceInternal locus of control orientationEmotional stability and maturityPersonal IntegritySocialized power motivationModerately high achievement orientationLow need for affiliation
9 Some relevant competencies Some additional leadership competencies have been identified, which are desirable in recent times:Emotional Intelligence:
10 Social Intelligence: It is defined as the ability to determine the requirements for leadership in a particular situation and select an appropriate response.The two primary components of social intelligence are social perceptiveness and behavioral flexibility.
11 Social perceptiveness is the ability to understand the functional needs, problems and opportunities that are relevant for a group or organization.It involvesconceptual skills and specific knowledge needed for strategic leadership,the ability to identify the threats and opportunitiesthe core competencies of the organization, and the ability to formulate an appropriate response.
12 Behavioral Flexibility is the ability and willingness to vary one’s behavior to accommodate situational requirements.
13 Ability to learn: One must be able to learn from experience and adapt to change. This competency, known as“METACOGNITION”, involves learning how to learn, which is the ability to introspectively analyze your own cognitive processes and to find ways to improve them.It also involves self awareness which is an understanding of your own strengths and limitations.
14 GUIDELINES FOR UNDERSTANDING AND IMPROVING RELEVANT COMPETENCIES Maintain self awarenessDevelop relevant skillsRemember that a strength can become a weaknessCompensate for weaknesses
15 SUMMARY OF TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP ASSUMPTIONLEADERS ARE BORN, NOT MADE!IMPLICATIONWE MUST BE VERY CAREFUL IN HOW WE SELECT OUR LEADERSLIMITATIONSIT OVERLOOKS THE NEEDS OF FOLLOWERS.NO UNIVERSAL TRAITS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED THAT PREDICT LEADE RSHIP IN ALL SITUATIONS.TRAITS PREDICT BEHAVIOUR IN WEAK SITUATIONS RATHER THAN IN STRONG SITUATIONS.IT IGNORES SITUATIONAL FACTORSCAUSE AND EFFECT ARE NOT CLEARLY DEFINEDDO SELF-CONFIDENT LEADERS CAUSE FIRMS TO BE SUCCESSFUL, OR DOES A SUCCESSFUL FIRM ALLOW A LEADER TO FEEL SELF-CONFIDENT?TRAITS DO NOT TALK ABOUT EFFECTIVE OR INEFFECTIVE LEADERS.