2 Section 1: Life in Ancient Rome Roman CultureThe Romans admired and studied Greek statues, buildings, and ideasThey copied the Greeks in many ways, but changed what they borrowed to suit their own needsRomans admired Greek art and architectureGreek statues were perfect, but Roman statues were more realistic and included the imperfectionsThey also used much of Greek architecture, but added arches and domesThey were also the first to use concrete in their buildings. Concrete made buildings sturdier and allowed them to build taller
3 Roman LiteratureRoman writers based most of their writing on the writing of Greek authorsVirgil drew some of his ideas from Homer’s Odyssey, the Aenid describes Aeneas’ travels and the “story of Rome”The poet Horace wrote satires-these works poked fun at human weakness, he also composed odes- or poems that express strong emotions about lifeLike the Greeks, the Romans had historians that recorded the events of their civilization- Livy- wrote his “History of Rome” in 10 BC, Livy greatly admired early Romans and he believed people should know their historyThe most lasting of the things from Roman culture may be their language, Latin, which shaped the languages of many civilizations, including our English words today
4 Daily Life in RomeBy the time of Augustus, a million people lived in Rome and the city was planned out carefully into roads that crossed at right anglesAt the center of Rome was the Forum, this served as a marketplace and public squareWealthy Romans lived in large, comfy housesThe city of Rome was crowded, noisy, and dirty. Most people were poor and lived in apartments made of stone and woodTo keep the people happy, the Roman government would have “bread and circuses” or free grain and entertainmentThe biggest attractions were chariot races and gladiator contests. Gladiators fought animals or each other and were admired like our sports heroes today
5 Roman Science and Engineering The Romans also learned from Greek science.A Greek doctor named Galen brought many medical ideas to Rome; including anatomy, the study of body structureAnother important scientist of the Roman Empire was Ptolemy. He studied the sky and mapped over 1000 different starsRoman engineers built an impressive system of roads and bridges to connect the empireThey also used advanced engineering to supply their cities with freshwater. Engineers built aqueducts, or long troughs supported by arches that brought water from the hills to the cities
6 What was family life like? Family life was important to the Romans, their families were large, they included not only parents and children, but also married children and their families, other relatives, and enslaved servantsThe father was the head of the household. He was called paterfamilias or “father of the family”- had complete control over family membersWealthy families hired tutors to teach their younger children at home, some older boys did go to schools where they learned reading, writing, and rhetoric, or public speaking.Girls did not go to school, they learned reading and writing at home, they also learned household dutiesBetween ages 14 and 16 , a Roman boy celebrated becoming a man. He would burn his toys as offerings to the household gods.He would put on a toga, join his family business, became a soldier or begin a career in government
7 Women in RomeRoman women did not become adults until they were marriedWomen in early Rome had some rights, but they were not full citizensThe freedoms that a woman enjoyed depended on her husband’s wealth and standingWealthy women had a great deal of independence. They could own land, run businesses, and sell property.Women with less money, had less freedom. They spent most of their time working in their houses or helping their husbands in family-run shops
8 How did Romans Treat Enslaved People? Slavery was a part of Roman life from early timesThousands of prisoners from conquered lands were brought to Italy. Most spent their lives performing slave labor. By 100BC, about 40 percent of the people in Italy were enslaved.For most enslaved people life was miserable. They were punished severely for poor work or for running away. To escape their hardships, enslaved people often rebelledThe most famous slave revolt was led by a gladiator named Spartacus.Under Spartacus a force of 70,000 enslaved people defeated several Roman armies.The revolt was crushed two years later. Spartacus and 6,000 of his followers were crucified, or put to death by nailing on a cross.
9 Section 2- The Fall of Rome In AD 180 Marcus Aurelius died. His son Commodus took overCommodus was cruel and wasted money. Instead of ruling Rome, Commodus spent much of his time fighting as a gladiatorIn AD 192, his bodyguard killed him, this set off a century of fighting and confusionAfter Commodus, emperors called Severans ruled Rome. Much of their time was spent putting down revolts and protecting Rome’s borders
10 Political and Social Problems When the last Severan ruler died in AD 235, Rome’s government became very weakFor almost 50 years after, army leaders fought each other for the throne. During the time, Rome had 22 different emperorsFewer Romans honored the old ideals of duty, courage, and honestyMany government officials took bribesMany wealthy citizens even stopped paying taxesFewer people went to schools and a large number of the empire’s people were enslaved.Wealthy Romans supported slavery- cheap work
11 Economic and Military Problems During the AD 200s, Rome’s economy began to fall apartGovernment weakened-law and order broke downSoldiers and invaders seized crops, farmers grew less food, hunger spreadLess goods are made, less jobsA plague, or a disease that spreads widely also did much damage- killed 1 in 10 peopleInflation-or rapidly increasing prices, was the next problemPrices went up, and many people began using no money at allThey began to barter, or exchange goods without using moneyInvaders swept in and Rome could not pay an army, so they brought in soldiers who were not loyal to Rome
12 What were Diocletian’s Reforms? In AD 284, a general named Diocletian became emperorTo stop the decline, he installed reforms, or political changes to make things betterEmpire was too big for one person to rule, divided it into 4 parts, named officials to rule these parts, but had authorityTo slow inflation, set the price of goods and wagesTo make sure there were enough products, he ordered workers to stay at the same job until they diedPeople ignored the rules and Diocletian did not have enough power to make them obey
13 Who was Constantine?In AD 305, Diocletian retired from office and after a period of fighting, Constantine became emperor in AD 312To aid the economy Constantine issued several ordersSons of workers had to follow their fathers’ trades, sons of farmers had to work same land as their fathers, sons of soldiers had to serve in the armyConstantine could not halt the decline in the west, named new capital in the east, ConstantinopleToday: called Istanbul, Turkey
14 Rome FallsBoth Diocletian and Constantine failed to save the Roman EmpireWhen Constantine died in AD 337, fighting broke out againIn AD 395, the Roman Empire split into two separate empires. Western Roman Empire- Rome and the Eastern Roman Empire-Constantinople
15 Rome Falls Cont.As Rome declined, it was no longer able to hold back the Germanic tribes on its bordersIn AD 410, Visigoth leader Alaric and his soldiers captured Rome itself.It was the first time Rome had been conquered in 800 years, the people were shockedAnother Germanic tribe known as the Vandals overran Spain and Northern AfricaA Germanic general named Odoacer took control overthrowing the 14 year old emperor, Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman emperor, marking the end of the Roman empire
16 The Legacy of RomeRoman ideas of law are still with us today as written in the Twelve TablesPeople are equal under law, we expect judges to decide cases fairly, and consider people innocent until proven guiltyThe alphabet of the Latin language has shaped the world and many languages (English, Italian, Spanish) just to name a few
17 Section 3- The Byzantine Empire Although the Western Roman Empire fell to Germanic invaders, the Eastern Roman Empire prospered becoming known as the Byzantine EmpireThe Byzantine Empire reached its peak around the AD 500s stretching west to Italy, south to Egypt, and east to the border with ArabiaGreeks made up the empire’s largest group, but Egyptians, Syrians, Arabs, Armenians, Jews Persians, Slavs, and Turks could be found in the empire
18 Why is Constantinople important? Constantine moved the Roman capital to Constantinople, during the Byzantine Empire, it was thriving and had become one of the world’s great citiesOne reason: location, it was located on the waterways between the Black Sea and the Aegean SeaHarbors offered safe shelter for fishing boats, trading ships, and warshipsIt was also at the crossroads of trade routes between Europe and AsiaLaying on a peninsula, it was protected by the Seas on three sides, on the fourth side a huge wall
19 Greek InfluenceThe Byzantines first followed Roman ways, in fact Constantinople was known as the “New Rome”The city even had an arena for chariot races and events called the HippodromePolitical and social life was also based on Roman, emperors spoke Latin, and enforced Roman lawsAs time passed, the Byzantine Empire became less Roman and more GreekMost Byzantines spoke Greek and honored their Greek pastEmperors and officials began to speak Greek as wellThe culture was influenced by Egyptians, Slavs, and PersiansThe cultures blended together and from AD 500-AD 1200, the Byzantines had one of the world’s richest and most advanced empires
20 Emperor JustinianJustinian became the emperor of the Byzantine Empire in AD 527 and ruled until AD 565Justinian was a strong leader who controlled the military, made laws, and was supreme judge. His order could not be questionedJustinian’s wife Theodora helped him run the empire. She was a former actress who was strong willed and helped make decisions.She convinced Justinian to give women more rights, Byzantine women for the first time could own landIn AD 532 she helped save the throne. Angry taxpayers attacked but Theodora advised that Justinian stand his ground, he did and crushed the uprising
21 Justinian’s Conquests Justinian wanted to reunite the Roman Empire and bring back Rome’s gloryTo do this he had to conquer Western Europe and northern Africa, so he hired a general named Belisarius to strengthen and lead the Byzantine armyDuring Justinian’s reign, the Byzantine military conquered most of Italy and northern Africa and defeated the Persians in the east.After he died, the empire did not have enough money to hold the territory in the west.
22 Justinian’s Law CodeJustinian decided that the empire’s laws were disorganized and too difficult to understandHe put together a group to analyze and reform the law codeThe group’s new simplified code became known as the Justinian Code.Officials, businesspeople, and individuals could now more easily understand the law.Over the years, the Justinian Code has had a great influence on the laws of almost every country in Europe.
23 Byzantine Civilization The Byzantine Empire lasted approximately 1,000 yearsThe city of Constantinople was one of the great cities of the world during its time due to the trade because of its locationArt was supported by the emperors. Most art was about religious figures.Mosaics- or pictures made from many bits of colored glass or stone were very common.Women’s roles were expanded by Theodora, but they were encouraged to do the house work and take care of the family. They could be regents though.A regent is a person who stands in for a ruler who is too young or too ill to govern.