2 Session OverviewDefine theory and explain its relationship to training.Describe the three factors determining human performance.Explanation of learning theories.
3 Definition of Theories:(1 of 3) Theories are Speculative road maps for how things work. Theory is the basis of science. It is how new knowledge is created. A good theory is also practical:It explains facts as simply as possible.It predicts future events.It provides information on what can be done to prevent undesirable things from happening.
4 Definition of Theories:(2 of 3) Theories are abstractions that allow us to make sense out of a large number of facts related to an issue. Effective training practices are developed from theories and theoretical constructs that describe how learning occurs, and what motivates people.
5 Definition of Theories:(3 of 3) Generally theories developed by all of us to help us understand how things work in our world.Theories are useful when they describe a set of facts and develop a logical rationale for what is likely to be true, given those facts
6 Factors Determining Human Performance (1 of 5) P = M x KSA x EENVIRONMENT (E)KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND ATTITUDES (KAS)MOTIVATION (M)PERFORMANCE (P)
7 Factors Determining Human Performance: (2 of 5) The performance model indicates that a person’s performance depends on the interaction of motivation, KSAs and Environment. Motivation arises from our needs and our beliefs about how best to satisfy those needs. Both motivation and KSAs are part of our memory and thinking systems( i.e., cognitive structure)Chapter 3
8 Factors Determining Human Performance: (3 of 5) Motivation: Why do they act like that? Motivation is part of a person’s cognitive structure and is not directly observable. Thus it is typically defined in terms of its effects on behavior, which are observable. Most of the scientific literature defines motivation as the direction, persistence, and amount of effort expended by an individual to achieve a specified outcome.
9 Factors Determining Human Performance: (4 of 5) In other words, the person's motivation is reflected by the following:What need(s) the person is trying to satisfyThe types of activity the person does to satisfy the needHow long the person keeps doing itHow hard the person works at it
10 Factors Determining Human Performance: (5of 5) KSAs: Our job performance, our behavior in general, is a function of what we know, what we are able to do, and what we believe(KSAs). We don’t have the KSAs, we can’t perform. However, additional factors are important in determining our performance. Environment: Environment refers to the physical surrounding in which performance must occur, including that our performance will be rewarded or punished.
11 Social Learning Theory Information Processing Theory Learning TheoriesReinforcement TheorySocial Learning TheoryGoal TheoriesNeed TheoriesExpectancy TheoryAdult Learning TheoryInformation Processing Theory
12 Learning Theories (cont.) Reinforcement theory - emphasizes that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors.Several processes in reinforcement theory are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment.
13 Learning Theories (cont.) Reinforcement theoryThe trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive and negative.Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills, or changing behaviors.Trainers can withhold or provide job-related, personal, and career-related benefits to learners who master program content.
14 Learning Theories (cont.) Social learning theory - emphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable.The theory recognizes that behavior that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated.
15 Learning Theories (cont.) Social learning theoryLearning new skills or behavior comes from:directly experiencing the consequences of using a behavior or skill, orthe process of observing others and seeing the consequences of their behavior.
16 Learning Theories (cont.) Social learning theoryLearning is also influenced by a person’s self-efficacy, which is a person’s judgment about whether he or she can successfully learn knowledge and skills.A person’s self-efficacy can be increased using several methods: verbal persuasion, logical verification, observation of others (modeling), and past accomplishments.
18 Learning Theories (cont.) Goal theoriesGoal setting theory - assumes that behavior results from a person’s conscious goals and intentions.Goals influence a person’s behavior by:directing energy and attention.sustaining effort over time.motivating the person to develop strategies for goal attainment.
19 Learning Theories (cont.) Goal theoriesGoal setting theoryIt is used in training program design.It suggests that learning can be facilitated by providing trainees with specific challenging goals and objectives.The influence of goal setting theory can be seen in the development of training lesson plans.
20 Learning Theories (cont.) Goal theoriesGoal orientation - the goals held by a trainee in a learning situation.It includes learning and performance orientation.Learning orientation - trying to increase ability or competence in a task.Performance orientation - learners who focus on task performance and how they compare to others.
21 Learning Theories (cont.) Goal theoriesGoal orientationIt affects the amount of effort a trainee will expend in learning (motivation to learn).Learners with a high learning orientation will direct greater attention to the task and learn for the sake of learning in comparison to learners with a performance orientation.Learners with a performance orientation will direct more attention to performing well and less effort to learning.
22 Learning Theories (cont.) Need theoriesHelps to explain the value that a person places on certain outcomes.Need - a deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in time.Maslow’s and Alderfer’s need theories focused on physiological needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs.
23 Learning Theories (cont.) Need theoriesThe major difference between Alderfer’s and Maslow’s hierarchies of needs is that Alderfer allows the possibility that if higher-level needs are not satisfied, employees will refocus on lower-level needs.McClelland’s need theory focused primarily on needs for achievement, affiliation, and power.
24 Learning Theories (cont.) Need theoriesSuggest that to motivate learning, trainers should identify trainees’ needs and communicate how training program content relates to fulfilling these needs.If certain basic needs of trainees are not met, they are unlikely to be motivated to learn.
25 Learning Theories (cont.) Expectancy theoryVictor Vroom (1964) Expectancy TheoryIt suggests that a person’s behavior is based on three factors:Expectancies - the link between trying to perform a behavior and actually performing well.Instrumentality - a belief that performing a given behavior is associated with a particular outcome.Valence - the value that a person places on an outcome.
27 Expectancy Theory - Vroom Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x InstrumentalityValence – the value placed on reward(Is it worth the extra effort?)Expectancy – the belief if one works harder, performance will improve.(If I work hard than everyone else, will I produce more)Instrumentality – expectation that improved performance will be rewarded(If I produce more, will I get a raise?)
28 Implications of Expectancy Theory Determine the outcomes employees valueIdentify good performance so appropriate behavior can be rewardedMake sure employees can achieve targeted performanceLink desired outcomes to targeted levels of performanceMake sure changes in outcomes are large enough to motivate high effortMonitor the reward systems for inequities
29 Learning Theories (cont.) Information processing theoryIt highlights how external events influence learning, which include:Verbal instructions, pictures, diagrams, and maps suggesting ways to code the training content so that it can be stored in memory.Meaningful learning context (examples, problems) creating cues that facilitate coding.Demonstration or verbal instructions helping to organize the learner’s response as well as facilitating the selection of the correct response.