Presentation on theme: "Politics and Performing Arts International Communism and Karl Marx."— Presentation transcript:
Politics and Performing Arts International Communism and Karl Marx
Political vocabulary Capitalism (Right Wing) Communism Socialism (Left Wing) The class struggle Social and economic justice Free market economy The Social and economic Class structure Ruling Class (Bourgeois) Middle class (Petty Bourgeois) Working class (Proletariat )
The state This means the government who rules a society Is it ? Democracy -an elected group of people by whole or part of population known as a e.g.( Britain –Europe-Brazil- USA- India) (citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives ) Dictatorship/Autocracy (e.g. Zimbabwe) Army - Military Dictatorship ( e.g. Burma) Royalty - Monarchy ( e.g. Saudi Arabia ) Theocracy - Religious leaders –( e.g. Iran)
Marxism Over the last hundred years most socialist movements would trace themselves back to the roots of the 19 th century philosopher Karl Marx. Karl Marx 1818 –1883 Often called the father of communism, Marx was both a scholar and a political activist. He addressed a wide range of political as well as social issues, and developed a new way of analysing history.
He is best known for his analysis of history, summed up in the opening line of his famous book the ‘Communist Manifesto’ “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”. Marx believed that capitalism, like previous socio economic systems, will produce internal tensions which will lead to its destruction. Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, capitalism itself will be displaced by communism, a classless society will emerge after a transitional period in which the state would be the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat.
Capitalism generally refers to an economic and social system in which the means of production ( what is produced either goods or services ) are predominantly privately owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market economy.
Capitalism Free market economy – all aspects of society should be run by private enterprise Government should not be interfering in business or private life
Class Marx was not really using class in the same way as sociologists went on to define class. Marx is describing an economic class. Membership of a class is defined by one's relationship to the means of production, i.e., (where and how you work) one's position in the social structure that characterizes capitalism. Marx talks mainly about two classes that include the vast majority of the population, the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
Class Proletariat - working class Bourgeoisie. Ruling and Upper classes – upper middle class Petty bourgeoisie -- lower middle class
How capitalists get rich Labour (the proletariat or workers) includes anyone who earns their livelihood by selling their labour power and being paid a wage or salary for their labour time. They have little choice but to work for capital, since they typically have no independent way to survive. Capital (the bourgeoisie or capitalists) includes anyone who gets their income not from labour but from the surplus value they take from the workers who create the wealth. The income of the capitalists, therefore, is based on their exploitation of the workers (proletariat).
Surplus value / exploitation A worker who is sufficiently productive can produce an output greater in value than what it costs to hire him. Although his wage seems to be based on hours worked, in an economic sense this wage does not reflect the full value of what the worker produces. Effectively it is not labour which the worker sells, but his capacity to work.
Owner of factory Makes £700 profit from his worker This is the surplus profit the worker makes he does not receive himself Proletariat Capitalist ( Bourgeoisie) Worker in a car factory Owner of factory Works Five days on a production line He earns £300 wages He makes £1000 worth of goods
Owns the tools The machinery And the materials to make the cars Ownership of the means of production Does not own his tools or the machinery to make the cars He only owns his ability to work and so he sells his labour
Political and economic changes Aims to create an economically fairer society where the gap between rich and poor is much less. The changes were brought about through trade union struggles. Reform of the law through political acts. The state ( government) regulates some aspect of trade and the production of goods Education improvements in the education of all members of society
The socialist future Workers are alienated by the working conditions and wages Capitalism will be defeated by an alliance of workers History is the life of people Nothing is fixed or changed
Britain – labour party Rise of the Labour Party founded in 1906. Keir Hardie as its leader. Seen as the principle party of the left in Britain The Labour Party traditionally was in favour of socialist policies such as public ownership of key industries, Government intervention and regulation of the economy Fairer redistribution of wealth Increased rights for workers and trade unions, and a belief in the welfare state and publicly funded healthcare and education.
The socialist ideal 1900 British labour Party – kier Hardy 1917 Russian Revolution post the first world war they overthrow the monarchy Communist Party of Germany (KPD) – Rosa Luxembourg being one of the leaders – it was crushed in 1919 1936 Spanish Civil War – the socialist groups fought General Franco and the fascist party.
Government 1944 school leaving age raised to 15 1945 Labour government elected 1946 Arts Council 1946 Nationalisation of the coal mines 1948 Health Service established 1948 Nationalisation of the railways
Mao zedong 1949 October 1, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China. In terms of ideology, Mao modified the Marxists ideas based on the characteristics of Chinese society, Rather than the industrial proletariat --the peasant class becomes the engine of the revolution, in the class struggle.