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**Describing Data: Numerical**

Topic 3 Describing Data: Numerical Figures won´t lie, but liars will figure Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Why descriptive statistics is important to managers?**

Managers also need to become acquainted with numerical descriptive measures that provide very brief and easy-to understand summaries of a data collection There are two broad categories into which these measures fail: measures of central tendency and measures of variability

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**Topic Goals Measures of central tendency, variation, and shape**

After completing this topic, you should be able to compute and interpret the: Measures of central tendency, variation, and shape (Arithmetic) Mean, median, mode, geometric mean Quartiles Five number summary and box-and-whisker plots Range, interquartile range, variance and standard deviation, coefficient of variation Symmetric and skewed distributions Flat and peaked distribution Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Describing Data Numerically**

Central Tendency Variation Arithmetic Mean Range Median Interquartile Range Mode Variance Geometric Mean Standard Deviation Coefficient of Variation Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Measures of Central Tendency**

Overview Central Tendency Mean Median Mode Arithmetic average Midpoint of ranked values Most frequently observed value Statistics for Business and Economics

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Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean (mean) is the most common measure of central tendency For a population of N values: For a sample of size n: Population values Population size Observed values Sample size Statistics for Business and Economics

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Arithmetic mean The arithmetic mean of a collection of numerical values is the sum of these values divided by the number of values. The symbol for the population mean is the Greek letter μ (mu), and the symbol for a sample mean is X (X-bar) A population parameter is any measurable characteristic of a population. A sample statistic is any measurable characteristic of a sample.

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**Characteristics of the arithmetic mean**

l. Every data set measured on an interval or ratio level has a mean. 2. The mean has valuable mathematicaI properties that make it convenient to use in further computations. 3. The mean is sensitive to extreme values. 4. The sum of the deviations of the numbers in a data set from the mean is zero 5. The sum of the squared deviations of the numbers in a data set from the mean is a minimum value.

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Geometric Mean The geometric mean is the most common measure of central tendency for rates (growth rates, interest rates, etc.) For N values: Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Arithmetic Mean The most common measure of central tendency**

(continued) The most common measure of central tendency Mean = sum of values divided by the number of values Affected by extreme values (outliers) !!! Mean = 3 Mean = 4 Statistics for Business and Economics

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Median The numerical value in the middle when data set is arranged in order (50% above, 50% below) Not affected by extreme values Median = 3 Median = 3 Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Finding the Median The location of the median:**

If the number of values is odd, the median is the middle number If the number of values is even, the median is the average of the two middle numbers Note that is not the value of the median, only the position of the median in the ranked data Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Mode A measure of central tendency Value that occurs most often**

Not affected by extreme values Used for either numerical or categorical data There may be no mode There may be several modes No Mode Mode = 9 Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Review Example: Summary Statistics**

House Prices: €2,000,000 500, , , ,000 Sum 3,000,000 Mean: (€3,000,000/5) = €600,000 Median: middle value of ranked data = €300,000 Mode: most frequent value = €100,000 Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Which measure of location is the “best”?**

Mean is generally used, unless extreme values (outliers) exist Then median is often used, since the median is not sensitive to extreme values. Example: Median home prices may be reported for a region – less sensitive to outliers Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Measures of Variability**

Variation Range Interquartile Range Variance Standard Deviation Coefficient of Variation Measures of variation give information on the spread or variability of the data values. Same center, different variation Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Range = Xlargest – Xsmallest**

Simplest measure of variation Difference between the largest and the smallest observations: Range = Xlargest – Xsmallest Example: Range = = 13 Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Disadvantages of the Range**

Ignores the way in which data are distributed Sensitive to outliers Range = = 5 Range = = 5 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,4,5 Range = = 4 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,4,120 Range = = 119 Statistics for Business and Economics

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Quartiles Quartiles split the ranked data into 4 segments with an equal number of values per segment 25% 25% 25% 25% Q1 Q2 Q3 The first quartile, Q1, is the value for which 25% of the observations are smaller and 75% are larger Q2 is the same as the median (50% are smaller, 50% are larger) Only 25% of the observations are greater than the third quartile Statistics for Business and Economics

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Quartile Formulas Find a quartile by determining the value in the appropriate position in the ranked data, where First quartile position: Q1 = 0.25(n+1) Second quartile position: Q2 = 0.50(n+1) (the median position) Third quartile position: Q3 = 0.75(n+1) where n is the number of observed values Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Quartiles Example: Find the first quartile (n = 9)**

Sample Ranked Data: (n = 9) Q1 = is in the (9+1) = 2.5 position of the ranked data so use the value half way between the 2nd and 3rd values, so Q1 = 12.5 Statistics for Business and Economics

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Interquartile Range Can eliminate some outlier problems by using the interquartile range Eliminate high- and low-valued observations and calculate the range of the middle 50% of the data Interquartile range = 3rd quartile – 1st quartile IQR = Q3 – Q1 Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Interquartile Range Five number summary –Box plot**

Example: Median (Q2) X X Q1 Q3 maximum minimum 25% % % % Interquartile range = 57 – 30 = 27 Statistics for Business and Economics

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Population Variance Average of squared deviations of values from the mean Population variance: Where = population mean N = population size xi = ith value of the variable x ni = absolute frequency Statistics for Business and Economics

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Sample Variance Average (approximately) of squared deviations of values from the mean Sample variance: Where = arithmetic mean n = sample size xi = ith value of the variable x ni = absolute frequency Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Population Standard Deviation**

The square root of population variance Most commonly used measure of variation Shows variation about the mean Has the same units as the original data Population standard deviation: Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Sample Standard Deviation**

The square root of the sample variance Most commonly used measure of variation Shows variation about the mean Has the same units as the original data Sample standard deviation: Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Calculation Example: Sample Standard Deviation**

Sample Data (xi) : n = Mean = x = 16 A measure of the “average” scatter around the mean Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Measuring variation Small standard deviation Large standard deviation**

Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Comparing Standard Deviations**

Data A Mean = 15.5 s = 3.338 Data B Mean = 15.5 s = 0.926 Data C Mean = 15.5 s = 4.570 Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Advantages of Variance and Standard Deviation**

Each value in the data set is used in the calculation Values far from the mean are given extra weight (because deviations from the mean are squared) Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Coefficient of Variation**

Measures relative variation Always in percentage (%) Shows variation relative to mean Can be used to compare two or more sets of data measured in different units Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Comparing Coefficient of Variation**

Stock A: Average price last year = $50 Standard deviation = $5 Stock B: Average price last year = $100 Both stocks have the same standard deviation, but stock B is less variable relative to its price Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Skewness Shows asymmetry and refers to the shape of a distribution**

Can take on positive, negative or zero values Statistics for Business and Economics

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Distribution Shape The shape of the distribution is said to be symmetric if the observations are balanced, or evenly distributed, about the center; coefficient of skewness equal zero When the distribution is unimodal, the mean, median, and mode are all equal to one another and are located at the center of the distribution Statistics for Business and Economics

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Distribution Shape (continued) The shape of the distribution is said to be skewed if the observations are not symmetrically distributed around the center. A positively skewed distribution (skewed to the right) has a tail that extends to the right in the direction of positive values. A negatively skewed distribution (skewed to the left) has a tail that extends to the left in the direction of negative values. Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Shape of a Distribution**

Describes how data are distributed Measures of shape Symmetric or skewed Left-Skewed Symmetric Right-Skewed Mean < Median < Mode Mean = Median = Mode Mean <Median < Mode Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Kurtosis Refers to the shape of a distribution**

Can take positive (peaked distribution), negative (flat distribution) or zero values (a symmetrical, bell-shaped, normal distribution) Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Kurtosis (continued) g2 > 0 g2 = 0 g2 < 0**

Statistics for Business and Economics

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The Empirical Rule If the data distribution is bell-shaped, then the interval: contains about 68% of the values in the population or the sample 68% Statistics for Business and Economics

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**The Empirical Rule contains about 95% of the values in**

the population or the sample contains about 99.7% of the values in the population or the sample 95% 99.7% Statistics for Business and Economics

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Using Microsoft Excel Simple Descriptive Statistics can be obtained from Microsoft® Excel Use menu choice: Data Tab / Data analysis / Descriptive statistics Enter details in dialog box Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Using Microsoft Excel Enter dialog box details**

(continued) Enter dialog box details Check box for summary statistics Click OK Statistics for Business and Economics

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**Simple descriptive statistics output, using the house price data:**

Excel output Microsoft Excel Simple descriptive statistics output, using the house price data: House Prices: $2,000,000 500, , , ,000 Statistics for Business and Economics

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Next topic Theory of probability Thank you! Have a nice day!

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