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Sex and Gender Chapter 10.

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Presentation on theme: "Sex and Gender Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sex and Gender Chapter 10

2 Sex and Gender Sex = biology Gender = cultural differences

3 Sex Characteristics Primary sex characteristics
Distinguishes male from female at birth Secondary sex characteristics After puberty Used to distinguish male from females Cause of new hormones

4 How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?
True or False? Most people have an accurate perception of their physical appearance.

5 How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?
False Many people do not have a very accurate perception of their bodies. For example, many girls and women think of themselves as “fat” when they are not. Some boys and men believe that they need a well-developed chest and arm muscles, broad shoulders, and a narrow waist.

6 How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?
True or False? Young girls and women very rarely die as a result of anorexia or bulimia.

7 How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?
False. Although the exact number is not known, many young girls and women die as a result of starvation, malnutrition, and other problems associated with anorexia and bulimia.

8 Hermaphrodites Caused by a hormone imbalance
Combination of male and female genitalia Western societies acknowledge two sexes other societies recognize three: Men Women Berdaches - males who behave, dress, work,and are treated as women.

9 Individual’s preference for emotional relationships
Sexual Orientation Individual’s preference for emotional relationships Heterosexuality Homosexuality bisexuality

10 Sexual Orientation Homosexual and gay are most often used in association with males who prefer same-sex relationships. Lesbian is used in association with females who prefer same-sex relationships. Heterosexual individuals, who prefer opposite-sex relationships, are sometimes referred to as straight.

11 Gender: The Cultural Dimension
Most “sex differences” are socially constructed “gender differences”. Gender is embedded in the images, ideas, and language of a society. Gender is used as a means to divide up work, allocate resources, and distribute power.

12 Microlevel Analysis of Gender
Gender role – attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process Gender identity – a person’s perception of the self as female or male Body consciousness – how a person perceives and feels about his or her body In US society, males are expected to demonstrate aggressiveness and toughness, females are expected to be passive and nurturing Gender identity is established between eighteen months and three years of age Developed through interaction with others Most develop an identity matching their sex Body consciousness – small and weak is ideal for women, but bad for men

13 Macrolevel Gender Analysis
Gendered institutions – structures creating inequality Society places tasks on men and women Gender belief system – all the ideas regarding masculinity and femininity are held to be valid Macrolevel analysis is looking at structural features that help perpetuate gender inequality Tasks like child rearing, warfare Gender belief system is legitimated by religion, science, law, and other societal values System can change as times change, but popular stereotypes tend to remain

14 The Social Significance of Gender
Stereotypes Men – strong, rational, dominant, independent, less concerned with appearance Women – weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious about appearance Stereo types are exemplified by eating disorders Three most common – anorexia, bulimia, or obesity anorexia, a person has lost 25% of body fat due to a compulsive fear of becoming fat Bulimia – binge then induce vomiting, excessive exercise, laxatives, or fasting Obesity – 20% or more above their desirable weight White, middle-class, heterosexual women tend to be primary victims Bodybuilding is another gendered experience – more common in men than women


16 Sexism Subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex 3 Components Negative attitudes toward women Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce, complement, or justify the prejudice Discrimination – acts that exclude, distance, or keep women separate Like racism, sexism is used to justify discriminatory treatment When they participate in gender-inappropriate endeavors, they are targets of prejudice and discrimination Found in undervaluing of women’s work and in hiring and promotion practices

17 Sexism Patriarchy – a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men Matriarchy – hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women Sexism is interwoven in the patriarchal society in the US Few societies are organized by a matriarchal system, older societies in Africa and Asia kind of were Explains part of the reason we’ve never seen a female president

18 Polling Question If you were taking a new job and had your choice of a boss, would you prefer to work for a man or a woman? Man Woman No preference

19 Gendered Division of Labor
Three factors Type of subsistence base Supply and demand for labor The extent to which women’s child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of work Three factors determine the gendered division of labor in a society Subsistence refers to the means by which a society gains the basic necessities of life Three factors vary according to a society’s technoeconomic base, or the level of technology and the organization of the economy Five bases have been identified Hunting and gathering societies Horticultural and pastoral societies Agrarian societies Industrial societies Postindustrial societies

20 Hunting and gathering societies were the earliest known division of labor between men and women
Men hunt, women gather Relationship is equal because neither gender has the ability to provide all the food necessary for survival Relationships between men and women are equal Social stratification does not exist because people do not acquire a food surplus Horticulture and Pastoral Societies Women make a contribution because hoe cultivation is compatible with child care Equal in horticulture because neither gender controls the food supply Inadequate moisture leads to pastoralism – domestication of large animals In these societies a woman’s primary value is simply in producing more males Agrarian Gender inequality and male dominance become institutionalized Agrarian tasks require more labor and greater physical strength than horticulture Women are removed because they are weak and these tasks do not comply with child-rearing responsibilities People acquire property, gain a surplus Strongest type of society for male dominance Industrial Husbands worked in factories, women stayed home Body image became more important (as people were not doing labor intensive work, but instead lifting weights, eating other foods, and watching their weight, office work required dressing up) Postindustrial Opportunity is present for both genders, however women tend to remain in lower positions with less likelihood of moving up

21 Gender and Socialization
Gender appropriate behaviors are learned through socialization Parents generally prefer sons Initially believed that only a son could care for parents Belief comes from socialization parents, teachers, friends, and the media all serve as gendered institutions that instruct us on the social meaning of male or female

22 Parents and Gender Socialization
Starts at birth Children's clothing and toys reflect their parents' gender expectations. Children are often assigned household tasks according to gender. Baby boys are thought of as less fragile than baby girls Parents are more prone to sing to a crying baby girl Boys will mow the lawn, taking out the trash, washing vehicles Girls will cook, clean, and sew

23 Peers and Gender Socialization
Peers help children learn gender-appropriate and inappropriate behavior. During adolescence, peers often are more effective at gender socialization than adults. College student peers play an important role in career choices and the establishment of long term, intimate relationships. Children want to fit in with their peers, which generally means taking on a gendered role Male peer groups tend to place more pressure on males, than females do Females will wear jeans, play sports, do masculine things

24 Schools and Gender Socialization
Teachers provide messages about gender through classroom assignments and informal interactions with students. Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism toward one gender over the other. Teachers socialize more at earlier levels, while kids still look up to their teachers a great deal Research shows teachers devote more time to boys than girls Many take a boys will be boys attitude when boys misbehave or are accused of sexual harassment

25 Sports and Gender Socialization
From elementary school through high school: Boys play football. Girls are cheerleaders, members of the drill team, and homecoming queens. For many males, sports is a training ground for masculinity. Boys play the competitive sports Girls are involved in much more uncompetitive activities Studies show that males are more apt to physical exertion than females Some say this difference is linked in what is gender-appropriate behavior Girls shouldn’t get sweaty and dirty

26 Mass Media and Gender Socialization
On television: Male characters typically are more aggressive, constructive, and direct. Females are deferential toward others or use manipulation to get their way. Men outnumber women in TV Grey’s Anatomy – same number of male to females, but males are the higher ranking doctors, while females are interns or nurses Magazines and advertisements help influence gender ideas Most ads of women are young, beautiful, and skinny

27 Adult Gender Socialization
Jobs teach appropriate conduct Double standard of aging exists after age forty Women will battle more with the notion of working and raising a family, this is never an issue for me Gray hair on men is considered a sign of wisdom, it is unattractive for women

28 Gendered Division of Paid Work
Gender-segregated work Concentration of women and men in different occupations, jobs, and places of work Gender-segregation in professional labor market has decreased Labor market segmentation results in women having separate and unequal jobs Pay gap is best-documented consequence ex. 97% of secretaries are women, 88% of engineers were men Women are underrepresented at the top of the corporate structure Professional labor market – doctors, lawyers, accountants, managers) Labor market segmentation – the division of jobs into categories with distinct working conditions Women are seen as secondary wage earners, more as wives and mothers Hurts both, keeps men out of traditional “female” jobs, in which they are constantly defending themselves and their occupation

29 % of Women, African Americans and Hispanics in Selected Occupations
Managerial, Professional 50.0 8.3 5.1 Technical, sales, support 63.7 11.4 9.1 Service jobs 60.4 17.9 16.3 Operators, laborers 23.3 15.6 17.7 Across all categories of occupations, white women and all people of color are not evenly represented

30 Pay Equity (Comparable Worth)
Occupational segregation contributes to a pay gap Pay equity or comparable worth Belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker Pay gap is calculated by dividing women’s earnings by men’s to yield a percentage, also known as the earnings ratio How do you determine comparable worth? Compare actual work of women’s and men’s jobs and see if there is a disparity in the salaries paid for each Break job into components like education, training, skills required, extent of responsibility for other’s work, and working conditions Allocate points for each

31 Paid Work and Family Work
Most women combine paid work with family work Domestic responsibilities consume a great deal of time Many belong to the sandwich generation Even though many women share responsibility in bread winner’s role, men do not share responsibility in house keeping Sandwich generation – females caught between taking care of children and elderly

32 Functionalist and Neoclassical Economic Perspectives
Men and women have distinct roles Essential for the survival of society Women’s roles as nurturers are more important in industrialized societies Men provide instrumental tasks Women provide expressive tasks Traditional division of labor is the natural order of the universe Most basic division between men and women is biological – men are stronger and women are only one who can bear and nurse children In industrialized societies, men perform instrumental tasks of providing economic support Women provide expressive – providing affection and emotional support If traditional order is upset, relationships between men and women are damaged and family life suffers

33 The Human Capital Model
Functionalist Model Individuals vary in the amount of human capital they provide What individuals earn is a result of their own choices Human capital is acquired by education and job training, it is the source of a person’s productivity and can be measuredi n terms of the return on the investment (wages) and the cost (schooling or training) Women diminish their human capital when they leave the labor force to raise a family They miss training and are out of the loop Critics of functionalist perspectives argue that problems inherent in traditional gender roles are minimized (ex. Some men may want to spend more time in child rearing process) Ignores fact that women have to hold jobs due to economic necessity Does not take into account why some opportunities are more readily available for others Critics say wages will be higher for men, regardless of choices women make

34 Conflict Perspectives
Gendered division of labor is a result of male dominance over women and resources Marxists assert that gender stratification results from private ownership of the means of production men’s dominance reaches its peak in agrarian societies, where women are completely reliant on men to provide

35 Feminist Perspective Liberal Feminism Radical Feminism
Gender equality is equated with equality of opportunity Radical Feminism Male domination causes all forms of human oppression Socialist Feminism Women’s oppression results from dual roles as paid and unpaid workers in a capitalist economy Multicultural Feminism Identifies struggles of females of differing races Feminism – the belief that women and men are equal and should be valued equally and have equal rights Holds in common with men’s studies the view that gender is a socially constructed concept that has important consequences in the lives of all people Liberal feminism - Roots of women’s oppression lie in women’s lack of equal civil rights and educational opportunities Only when these constraints are removed will women succeed Radical feminism – trace roots of patriarchy to women’s childbearing responsibilities, which makes them dependent on men Patriarchy must be abolished to see change Socialist feminism – gendered job segregation is the primary mechanism in capitalist society that maintains the superiority of men over women because it enforces lower wages for women in the labor market

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