2 Sex and GenderSex = biologyGender = cultural differences
3 Sex Characteristics Primary sex characteristics Distinguishes male from female at birthSecondary sex characteristicsAfter pubertyUsed to distinguish male from femalesCause of new hormones
4 How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender? True or False?Most people have an accurate perception of their physical appearance.
5 How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender? FalseMany people do not have a very accurate perception of their bodies.For example, many girls and women think of themselves as “fat” when they are not.Some boys and men believe that they need a well-developed chest and arm muscles, broad shoulders, and a narrow waist.
6 How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender? True or False?Young girls and women very rarely die as a result of anorexia or bulimia.
7 How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender? False.Although the exact number is not known, many young girls and women die as a result of starvation, malnutrition, and other problems associated with anorexia and bulimia.
8 Hermaphrodites Caused by a hormone imbalance Combination of male and female genitaliaWestern societies acknowledge two sexesother societies recognize three:MenWomenBerdaches - males who behave, dress, work,and are treated as women.
9 Individual’s preference for emotional relationships Sexual OrientationIndividual’s preference for emotional relationshipsHeterosexualityHomosexualitybisexuality
10 Sexual OrientationHomosexual and gay are most often used in association with males who prefer same-sex relationships.Lesbian is used in association with females who prefer same-sex relationships.Heterosexual individuals, who prefer opposite-sex relationships, are sometimes referred to as straight.
11 Gender: The Cultural Dimension Most “sex differences” are socially constructed “gender differences”.Gender is embedded in the images, ideas, and language of a society.Gender is used as a means to divide up work, allocate resources, and distribute power.
12 Microlevel Analysis of Gender Gender role – attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization processGender identity – a person’s perception of the self as female or maleBody consciousness – how a person perceives and feels about his or her bodyIn US society, males are expected to demonstrate aggressiveness and toughness, females are expected to be passive and nurturingGender identity is established between eighteen months and three years of ageDeveloped through interaction with othersMost develop an identity matching their sexBody consciousness – small and weak is ideal for women, but bad for men
13 Macrolevel Gender Analysis Gendered institutions – structures creating inequalitySociety places tasks on men and womenGender belief system – all the ideas regarding masculinity and femininity are held to be validMacrolevel analysis is looking at structural features that help perpetuate gender inequalityTasks like child rearing, warfareGender belief system is legitimated by religion, science, law, and other societal valuesSystem can change as times change, but popular stereotypes tend to remain
14 The Social Significance of Gender StereotypesMen – strong, rational, dominant, independent, less concerned with appearanceWomen – weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious about appearanceStereo types are exemplified by eating disordersThree most common – anorexia, bulimia, or obesityanorexia, a person has lost 25% of body fat due to a compulsive fear of becoming fatBulimia – binge then induce vomiting, excessive exercise, laxatives, or fastingObesity – 20% or more above their desirable weightWhite, middle-class, heterosexual women tend to be primary victimsBodybuilding is another gendered experience – more common in men than women
16 SexismSubordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex3 ComponentsNegative attitudes toward womenStereotypical beliefs that reinforce, complement, or justify the prejudiceDiscrimination – acts that exclude, distance, or keep women separateLike racism, sexism is used to justify discriminatory treatmentWhen they participate in gender-inappropriate endeavors, they are targets of prejudice and discriminationFound in undervaluing of women’s work and in hiring and promotion practices
17 SexismPatriarchy – a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by menMatriarchy – hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by womenSexism is interwoven in the patriarchal society in the USFew societies are organized by a matriarchal system, older societies in Africa and Asia kind of wereExplains part of the reason we’ve never seen a female president
18 Polling QuestionIf you were taking a new job and had your choice of a boss, would you prefer to work for a man or a woman?ManWomanNo preference
19 Gendered Division of Labor Three factorsType of subsistence baseSupply and demand for laborThe extent to which women’s child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of workThree factors determine the gendered division of labor in a societySubsistence refers to the means by which a society gains the basic necessities of lifeThree factors vary according to a society’s technoeconomic base, or the level of technology and the organization of the economyFive bases have been identifiedHunting and gathering societiesHorticultural and pastoral societiesAgrarian societiesIndustrial societiesPostindustrial societies
20 Hunting and gathering societies were the earliest known division of labor between men and women Men hunt, women gatherRelationship is equal because neither gender has the ability to provide all the food necessary for survivalRelationships between men and women are equalSocial stratification does not exist because people do not acquire a food surplusHorticulture and Pastoral SocietiesWomen make a contribution because hoe cultivation is compatible with child careEqual in horticulture because neither gender controls the food supplyInadequate moisture leads to pastoralism – domestication of large animalsIn these societies a woman’s primary value is simply in producing more malesAgrarianGender inequality and male dominance become institutionalizedAgrarian tasks require more labor and greater physical strength than horticultureWomen are removed because they are weak and these tasks do not comply with child-rearing responsibilitiesPeople acquire property, gain a surplusStrongest type of society for male dominanceIndustrialHusbands worked in factories, women stayed homeBody image became more important (as people were not doing labor intensive work, but instead lifting weights, eating other foods, and watching their weight, office work required dressing up)PostindustrialOpportunity is present for both genders, however women tend to remain in lower positions with less likelihood of moving up
21 Gender and Socialization Gender appropriate behaviors are learned through socializationParents generally prefer sonsInitially believed that only a son could care for parentsBelief comes from socializationparents, teachers, friends, and the media all serve as gendered institutions that instruct us on the social meaning of male or female
22 Parents and Gender Socialization Starts at birthChildren's clothing and toys reflect their parents' gender expectations.Children are often assigned household tasks according to gender.Baby boys are thought of as less fragile than baby girlsParents are more prone to sing to a crying baby girlBoys will mow the lawn, taking out the trash, washing vehiclesGirls will cook, clean, and sew
23 Peers and Gender Socialization Peers help children learn gender-appropriate and inappropriate behavior.During adolescence, peers often are more effective at gender socialization than adults.College student peers play an important role in career choices and the establishment of long term, intimate relationships.Children want to fit in with their peers, which generally means taking on a gendered roleMale peer groups tend to place more pressure on males, than females doFemales will wear jeans, play sports, do masculine things
24 Schools and Gender Socialization Teachers provide messages about gender through classroom assignments and informal interactions with students.Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism toward one gender over the other.Teachers socialize more at earlier levels, while kids still look up to their teachers a great dealResearch shows teachers devote more time to boys than girlsMany take a boys will be boys attitude when boys misbehave or are accused of sexual harassment
25 Sports and Gender Socialization From elementary school through high school:Boys play football.Girls are cheerleaders, members of the drill team, and homecoming queens.For many males, sports is a training ground for masculinity.Boys play the competitive sportsGirls are involved in much more uncompetitive activitiesStudies show that males are more apt to physical exertion than femalesSome say this difference is linked in what is gender-appropriate behaviorGirls shouldn’t get sweaty and dirty
26 Mass Media and Gender Socialization On television:Male characters typically are more aggressive, constructive, and direct.Females are deferential toward others or use manipulation to get their way.Men outnumber women in TVGrey’s Anatomy – same number of male to females, but males are the higher ranking doctors, while females are interns or nursesMagazines and advertisements help influence gender ideasMost ads of women are young, beautiful, and skinny
27 Adult Gender Socialization Jobs teach appropriate conductDouble standard of aging exists after age fortyWomen will battle more with the notion of working and raising a family, this is never an issue for meGray hair on men is considered a sign of wisdom, it is unattractive for women
28 Gendered Division of Paid Work Gender-segregated workConcentration of women and men in different occupations, jobs, and places of workGender-segregation in professional labor market has decreasedLabor market segmentation results in women having separate and unequal jobsPay gap is best-documented consequenceex. 97% of secretaries are women, 88% of engineers were menWomen are underrepresented at the top of the corporate structureProfessional labor market – doctors, lawyers, accountants, managers)Labor market segmentation – the division of jobs into categories with distinct working conditionsWomen are seen as secondary wage earners, more as wives and mothersHurts both, keeps men out of traditional “female” jobs, in which they are constantly defending themselves and their occupation
29 % of Women, African Americans and Hispanics in Selected Occupations Managerial, Professional50.08.35.1Technical, sales, support63.711.49.1Service jobs60.417.916.3Operators, laborers23.315.617.7Across all categories of occupations, white women and all people of color are not evenly represented
30 Pay Equity (Comparable Worth) Occupational segregation contributes to a pay gapPay equity or comparable worthBelief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the workerPay gap is calculated by dividing women’s earnings by men’s to yield a percentage, also known as the earnings ratioHow do you determine comparable worth?Compare actual work of women’s and men’s jobs and see if there is a disparity in the salaries paid for eachBreak job into components like education, training, skills required, extent of responsibility for other’s work, and working conditionsAllocate points for each
31 Paid Work and Family Work Most women combine paid work with family workDomestic responsibilities consume a great deal of timeMany belong to the sandwich generationEven though many women share responsibility in bread winner’s role, men do not share responsibility in house keepingSandwich generation – females caught between taking care of children and elderly
32 Functionalist and Neoclassical Economic Perspectives Men and women have distinct rolesEssential for the survival of societyWomen’s roles as nurturers are more important in industrialized societiesMen provide instrumental tasksWomen provide expressive tasksTraditional division of labor is the natural order of the universeMost basic division between men and women is biological – men are stronger and women are only one who can bear and nurse childrenIn industrialized societies, men perform instrumental tasks of providing economic supportWomen provide expressive – providing affection and emotional supportIf traditional order is upset, relationships between men and women are damaged and family life suffers
33 The Human Capital Model Functionalist ModelIndividuals vary in the amount of human capital they provideWhat individuals earn is a result of their own choicesHuman capital is acquired by education and job training, it is the source of a person’s productivity and can be measuredi n terms of the return on the investment (wages) and the cost (schooling or training)Women diminish their human capital when they leave the labor force to raise a familyThey miss training and are out of the loopCritics of functionalist perspectives argue that problems inherent in traditional gender roles are minimized (ex. Some men may want to spend more time in child rearing process)Ignores fact that women have to hold jobs due to economic necessityDoes not take into account why some opportunities are more readily available for othersCritics say wages will be higher for men, regardless of choices women make
34 Conflict Perspectives Gendered division of labor is a result of male dominance over women and resourcesMarxists assert that gender stratification results from private ownership of the means of productionmen’s dominance reaches its peak in agrarian societies, where women are completely reliant on men to provide
35 Feminist Perspective Liberal Feminism Radical Feminism Gender equality is equated with equality of opportunityRadical FeminismMale domination causes all forms of human oppressionSocialist FeminismWomen’s oppression results from dual roles as paid and unpaid workers in a capitalist economyMulticultural FeminismIdentifies struggles of females of differing racesFeminism – the belief that women and men are equal and should be valued equally and have equal rightsHolds in common with men’s studies the view that gender is a socially constructed concept that has important consequences in the lives of all peopleLiberal feminism - Roots of women’s oppression lie in women’s lack of equal civil rights and educational opportunitiesOnly when these constraints are removed will women succeedRadical feminism – trace roots of patriarchy to women’s childbearing responsibilities, which makes them dependent on menPatriarchy must be abolished to see changeSocialist feminism – gendered job segregation is the primary mechanism in capitalist society that maintains the superiority of men over women because it enforces lower wages for women in the labor market