5 Info. Relating to the Atmosphere Troposphere-Ionosphere-Where does weather occur?Why does the frequency of radio stations break up?
6 Ozone Layer What is ozone? What is the ozone layer? Where is the ozone layer located?How does ultraviolet radiation affect you?Describe CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons)…
7 Energy From the Sun Type of Energy Transfer Description Example RadiationTransfer of energy through electromagnetic wavesConductionTransfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into one anotherConvectionTransfer of heat by the flow of heated material
8 Water Cycle Words to Know What is a cycle?Evaporation-Transpiration-Condensation-Precipitation-
10 Movement of AirWinds are caused by the uneven heating between the Equator & the PolesHot air risesCool air settlesCoriolis Effect:deflects all free-moving objects (such as air and water) to the right north of the equator and left to the south
11 Wind SystemsThe Prevailing Winds are caused by the rotation of the earth and the position of the continents.SURFACE WINDSEasterlies –Westerlies -Trade Winds –Doldrums -
13 HIGH ALTITUDE AND LOCAL WINDS Jet Stream – winds at high altitude (where the jets fly). Flows from west to east in northern hemisphere and opposite direction in the southern hemisphereLocal Winds – are caused by convection currents examples are Sea and Land Breezes
14 Climate Words to Know: Tropics- Polar Zones- Temperate Zones-
15 What is the difference between weather & climate?
16 El Nino ~ La Nina Some climatic changes last longer than a season… El Nino is a climatic event that starts in the tropical Pacific Ocean and sets off changes in the atmosphere (unusually warm ocean temperatures)La Nina is El Nino’s counterpart which causes unusually cold ocean temperatures
24 Upwelling & Density Currents Circulation of ocean that brings deep, cold, nutrient-rich water to the surfaceTOP to BOTTOMImportant for fishing!Contributes to San Francisco’s“famous fogs”More dense seawater sinks under less dense seawaterHORIZONTAL
25 Ocean Waves & TidesWave- rhythmic movement that carries energy through ________ or _______Ocean Waves carry energy through _________
27 TIDES Tide = ______ and ______ in sea level Tidal Range = the difference between the level of the ocean at ______ _______ and ______ _______Tides are affected by the gravitational pull of the _______ and _____ on the earth’s waters.The moon is closer to earth, and therefore, exerts a _________ gravitational pull.
33 Mining the Ocean FloorSalt has always been collected from the ocean water. Now, we also collect oil, gas & minerals from the sea.
34 Life in the OceanEnergy Relationships: - photosynthetic organisms capture the sun’s energy and make food using light energy, carbon dioxide, and water through _______________ - chemosynthetic organisms do not rely on sunlight; instead, they rely on ____________
39 Chapter 22: Sun-Earth-Moon System ASTRONOMY!!!Chapter 22: Sun-Earth-Moon System
40 Planet Earth DataSphere: round, 3-D object whose surface at all points is the same distance from its centerAxis: imaginary line around which earth spinsRotation: spinning of Earth on its axiscauses day & night1 rotation takes 24 hours
46 Earth’s MoonThe moon rotates on its axis and revolves around the earth once every 27.3 days.Because these two motions take the same amount of time, we only see ONE side of the moon.
47 Moon PhasesMoon Phase: apparent change in the shape of the moon as seen from earthDepends upon the relative positions of the earth, sun and moonWAXING = more of the moon becomes visibleWANING = less of the moon becomes visible
50 Solar Eclipse- moon comes between the earth & sun, casts a shadow on earth
51 Lunar Eclipse- earth comes between the moon & sun, blocks sunlight from reaching moon
52 The Solar SystemCollection of planets & other objects that orbit the sunInner Planets (rocky, solid core)Outer Planets (gaseous)
53 # of Earth Days to Orbit the Sun The Inner PlanetsSize & CompositionAtmosphereTemperaturesSurface FeaturesMoons(number/names)# of Earth Days to Orbit the Sun
54 # of Earth Days to Orbit the Sun The Outer PlanetsSize & CompositionAtmosphereBelow the AtmosphereNotable FeaturesMoons(number/names)# of Earth Days to Orbit the Sun
55 OTHER OBJECTS IN SPACE Comets (Cupids, Donner, Blitzen) orbit the sun Composed of dust and rock particles mixed in with frozen water and gases.The most well-known comet is Halley’s Comet. It is visible on Earth every76 years.
56 MeteorsMeteoroids - A large rock traveling through space, composed of nickel and iron.Meteor – A meteoroid that reaches the earth’s atmosphere.AKA: “shooting star”Meteorite – A meteor that hits the earth’s surface
57 Asteroids – are pieces of rock that orbit the sun between Mars and Jupiter (The Asteroid Belt)… What are they doing there?
69 GALAXIES: large group of stars, gas, & dust held together by gravity EllipticalSpiralIrregular
70 The Milky WayWhat you know as HOMESpiral galaxy
71 Doppler ShiftThe Doppler Shift causes wavelengths of light coming from galaxies to be compressed or stretchedUsed to determine whether objects are moving toward or away from the earthRed Shift (appear to move away)Blue Shift (appear to move toward object)