Presentation on theme: "Electron Configuration Revised by Ferguson Fall 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Electron Configuration Revised by Ferguson Fall 2014
How do the chemical properties arise from the structure of atoms? pages144 -> Our first understanding of the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus began in 1920, by Neils Bohr, and is called the Quantum Theory. The quantum theory provides insight into why some atoms tend to “gain” electrons and other atoms “donate” electrons to form ions in chemical bonds.
What is a “quantum” state? a specific combination of values of variables such as energy and position that is allowed by quantum theory. Electrons are grouped into different “quantum states” as a way to describe the electron arrangement around a nucleus of an atom.
Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom –Describes the probability that the electron will be in a certain region of space at a given instant. –Orbitals are regions of different energies where the electrons can be found.
The quantum-mechanical model uses 3 quantum numbers to describe an orbital: –The principal quantum number (n) Can be any positive integer (n=1, n=2, n=3, etc.) Describes the energy level
–The angular momentum quantum number ( l ) Lowercase cursive L Can have values from 0 to (n–1) Defines the shape of the orbital –The magnetic quantum number (m l ) Can have integer values between – l and + l Describes the orientation of the orbital in space Value of 0123 Orbital shapespdf
Value of n Possible values of l Subshellpossible values of m l # of orbitals in subshell 101s01 202s01 12p-1, 0, 13 303s01 13p-1, 0, 13 23d -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 5 404s01 14p-1, 0, 13 24d -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 5 34f -3,-2, -1, 0, 1, 2,3 7
Orbitals Orbitals hold electrons, and show the area in which the electrons can be found. “s” orbitals can hold 2 electrons “p” orbitals can hold 6 electrons “d” orbitals can hold 10 electrons “f” orbitals can hold 14 electrons
Quantum States and Orbitals There are 4 shapes associated with quantum states: s, p, d, and f.
s orbitals Have a spherical shape. There is one orbital in each s subshell.
p orbitals Dumbbell shaped orbitals Each p subshell contains 3 orbitals. Each of the 3 orbitals is oriented along a different axis (x, y, or z)
d orbitals Each d sublevel contains 5 orbitals. 4 of the 5 orbitals have a four-leaf clover shape. The d z 2 orbital has lobes on the z axis and a “doughnut” shape in the x-y plane.
f orbitals An f sublevel will contain 7 orbitals
Electron Configurations Electron configuration = a description of which orbitals contain electrons for a particular atom.
All orbitals in the same subshell are said to be degenerate, meaning that they have the same energy. (i.e. the 3 orbitals in the 2p sublevel each have the same energy). A maximum of 2 electrons can be located in a given orbital. Subshell# of orbitalMax # of Electrons s12 p36 d510 f714
Finding Electron Configuration: The complete list of orbitals and the order in which they fill for all of the currently discovered elements is: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p Aufbau Principle : orbitals are filled in order of increasing energy (lowest energy orbitals filled first).
The fourth quantum number –The magnetic spin quantum number (m s ) –Can have a value of either + ½ or – ½ –Represents the electron’s spin about its axis, which can generate a magnetic field in two possible directions. The Pauli Exclusion Principle –No two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers. –Therefore two electrons found in the same orbital will have opposite spins (+ ½ and – ½)
Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity When more than one orbital of equal energies are available then the electrons will first occupy these orbitals separately with parallel spins. The pairing of electrons will start only after all the orbitals of a given sub level are singly occupied.
Arrow Notation We have learned the long method of writing out electron configuration. We can also write electron config. using the orbital diagram or arrow method.
For example, the three electrons that are filled into the three 'p' orbitals can be represented in two different ways:
Valence Electrons –outer-shell electrons –Include s and p electrons in the highest energy level –Electrons that are involved in chemical bonding Core Electrons = inner-shell electrons For example, a phosphorus atom has 15 total electrons –Phosphorus has 5 valence electrons (the electrons in the 3s and 3 p orbitals) –Phosphorus has 10 core electrons (found in the first and second energy levels)
The octet rule atoms tend to form chemical bonds to reach a full outer-shell of 8 valence electrons. For example, the phosphorus atom on the previous slide would gain three electrons to reach a full outer shell. This P 3- ion would have the same electron configuration as the element argon. When an atom and an ion have the same electron configuration, they are said to be isoelectronic.
Transition metal ions –d and f electrons are not considered valence electrons. –Outer shell s and p electrons will be lost first. For example: Fe Fe 2+ Fe 3+