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**Lect. 15: Faraday’s Law and Induction**

Chapter 30 HW 5 (problems): 28.5, 28.10, 28.15, 28.27, 28.36, 28.45, 28.50, 28.63, 29.15, 29.36, 29.48, 29.54, 30.14, 30.34, 30.42, 30.48 Due Thursday, July 17.

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**Induction An induced current is produced by a changing magnetic field**

There is an induced emf associated with the induced current A current can be produced without a battery present in the circuit Faraday’s law of induction describes the induced emf

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**EMF Produced by a Changing Magnetic Field, 1**

A loop of wire is connected to a sensitive ammeter When a magnet is moved toward the loop, the ammeter deflects The direction was arbitrarily chosen to be negative

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**EMF Produced by a Changing Magnetic Field, 2**

When the magnet is held stationary, there is no deflection of the ammeter Therefore, there is no induced current Even though the magnet is in the loop

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**EMF Produced by a Changing Magnetic Field, 3**

The magnet is moved away from the loop The ammeter deflects in the opposite direction Use the active figure to move the wires and observe the deflection on the meter

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**Faraday’s Experiment – Conclusions**

An electric current can be induced in a loop by a changing magnetic field This would be the current in the secondary circuit of this experimental set-up The induced current exists only while the magnetic field through the loop is changing This is generally expressed as: an induced emf is produced in the loop by the changing magnetic field The actual existence of the magnetic flux is not sufficient to produce the induced emf, the flux must be changing

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**Faraday’s Law – Statements**

Faraday’s law of induction states that “the emf induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit” Mathematically,

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**Faraday’s Law – Statements, cont**

Remember FB is the magnetic flux through the circuit and is found by If the circuit consists of N loops, all of the same area, and if FB is the flux through one loop, an emf is induced in every loop and Faraday’s law becomes

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**Faraday’s Law – Example**

Assume a loop enclosing an area A lies in a uniform magnetic field The magnetic flux through the loop is FB = BA cos q The induced emf is e = - d/dt (BA cos q)

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**Ways of Inducing an emf The magnitude of can change with time**

The area enclosed by the loop can change with time The angle q between and the normal to the loop can change with time Any combination of the above can occur

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**Applications of Faraday’s Law – Pickup Coil**

The pickup coil of an electric guitar uses Faraday’s law The coil is placed near the vibrating string and causes a portion of the string to become magnetized When the string vibrates at some frequency, the magnetized segment produces a changing flux through the coil The induced emf is fed to an amplifier

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Motional emf A motional emf is the emf induced in a conductor moving through a constant magnetic field The electrons in the conductor experience a force, that is directed along ℓ

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**Motional emf, final For equilibrium, qE = qvB or E = vB**

The electric field is related to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor: DV = E ℓ =B ℓ v A potential difference is maintained between the ends of the conductor as long as the conductor continues to move through the uniform magnetic field If the direction of the motion is reversed, the polarity of the potential difference is also reversed

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**Sliding Conducting Bar**

A bar moving through a uniform field and the equivalent circuit diagram Assume the bar has zero resistance The stationary part of the circuit has a resistance R

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**Sliding Conducting Bar, cont.**

The induced emf is Since the resistance in the circuit is R, the current is

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**Sliding Conducting Bar, Energy Considerations**

The applied force does work on the conducting bar This moves the charges through a magnetic field and establishes a current The change in energy of the system during some time interval must be equal to the transfer of energy into the system by work The power input is equal to the rate at which energy is delivered to the resistor

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Lenz’s Law Faraday’s law indicates that the induced emf and the change in flux have opposite algebraic signs This has a physical interpretation that has come to be known as Lenz’s law Developed by German physicist Heinrich Lenz

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Lenz’s Law, cont. Lenz’s law: the induced current in a loop is in the direction that creates a magnetic field that opposes the change in magnetic flux through the area enclosed by the loop The induced current tends to keep the original magnetic flux through the circuit from changing

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Lenz’ Law, Example The conducting bar slides on the two fixed conducting rails The magnetic flux due to the external magnetic field through the enclosed area increases with time The induced current must produce a magnetic field out of the page The induced current must be counterclockwise If the bar moves in the opposite direction, the direction of the induced current will also be reversed

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**Induced emf and Electric Fields**

An electric field is created in the conductor as a result of the changing magnetic flux Even in the absence of a conducting loop, a changing magnetic field will generate an electric field in empty space This induced electric field is nonconservative Unlike the electric field produced by stationary charges

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**Induced emf and Electric Fields, cont.**

The emf for any closed path can be expressed as the line integral of over the path Faraday’s law can be written in a general form:

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**Induced emf and Electric Fields, final**

The induced electric field is a nonconservative field that is generated by a changing magnetic field The field cannot be an electrostatic field because if the field were electrostatic, and hence conservative, the line integral of would be zero and it isn’t

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Generators Electric generators take in energy by work and transfer it out by electrical transmission The AC generator consists of a loop of wire rotated by some external means in a magnetic field Use the active figure to adjust the speed of rotation and observe the effect on the emf generated

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Rotating Loop Assume a loop with N turns, all of the same area rotating in a magnetic field The flux through the loop at any time t is FB = BA cos q = BA cos wt

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**Induced emf in a Rotating Loop**

The induced emf in the loop is This is sinusoidal, with emax = NABw

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**Induced emf in a Rotating Loop, cont.**

emax occurs when wt = 90o or 270o This occurs when the magnetic field is in the plane of the coil and the time rate of change of flux is a maximum e = 0 when wt = 0o or 180o This occurs when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the coil and the time rate of change of flux is zero

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Motors Motors are devices into which energy is transferred by electrical transmission while energy is transferred out by work A motor is a generator operating in reverse A current is supplied to the coil by a battery and the torque acting on the current-carrying coil causes it to rotate

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Motors, final The current in the rotating coil is limited by the back emf The term back emf is commonly used to indicate an emf that tends to reduce the supplied current The induced emf explains why the power requirements for starting a motor and for running it are greater for heavy loads than for light ones

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Some Terminology Use emf and current when they are caused by batteries or other sources Use induced emf and induced current when they are caused by changing magnetic fields When dealing with problems in electromagnetism, it is important to distinguish between the two situations

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Self-Inductance When the switch is closed, the current does not immediately reach its maximum value Faraday’s law can be used to describe the effect

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Self-Inductance, 2 As the current increases with time, the magnetic flux through the circuit loop due to this current also increases with time This increasing flux creates an induced emf in the circuit The direction of the induced emf is opposite the direction of the emf of the battery

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**Self-Inductance, 3 This effect is called self-inductance**

Because the changing flux through the circuit and the resultant induced emf arise from the circuit itself The emf εL is called a self-induced emf

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**Self-Inductance, Equations**

An induced emf is always proportional to the time rate of change of the current The emf is proportional to the flux, which is proportional to the field and the field is proportional to the current L is a constant of proportionality called the inductance of the coil and it depends on the geometry of the coil and other physical characteristics

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Inductance of a Coil A closely spaced coil of N turns carrying current I has an inductance of The inductance is a measure of the opposition to a change in current; The SI unit of inductance is the henry (H)

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**Inductance of a Solenoid**

Assume a uniformly wound solenoid having N turns and length ℓ Assume ℓ is much greater than the radius of the solenoid The flux through each turn of area A is

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**RL Circuit, Introduction**

A circuit element that has a large self-inductance is called an inductor The circuit symbol is We assume the self-inductance of the rest of the circuit is negligible compared to the inductor However, even without a coil, a circuit will have some self-inductance

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**Effect of an Inductor in a Circuit**

The inductance results in a back emf Therefore, the inductor in a circuit opposes changes in current in that circuit The inductor attempts to keep the current the same way it was before the change occurred The inductor can cause the circuit to be “sluggish” as it reacts to changes in the voltage

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**RL Circuit, Analysis An RL circuit contains an inductor and a resistor**

Assume S2 is connected to a When switch S1 is closed (at time t = 0), the current begins to increase At the same time, a back emf is induced in the inductor that opposes the original increasing current

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**RL Circuit, Analysis, cont.**

Applying Kirchhoff’s loop rule to the previous circuit in the clockwise direction gives Looking at the current, we find

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**RL Circuit, Analysis, Final**

The inductor affects the current exponentially The current does not instantly increase to its final equilibrium value If there is no inductor, the exponential term goes to zero and the current would instantaneously reach its maximum value as expected

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**RL Circuit, Time Constant**

The expression for the current can also be expressed in terms of the time constant, t, of the circuit where t = L / R Physically, t is the time required for the current to reach 63.2% of its maximum value

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**RL Circuit Without A Battery**

Now set S2 to position b The circuit now contains just the right hand loop The battery has been eliminated The expression for the current becomes

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**Energy in a Magnetic Field**

In a circuit with an inductor, the battery must supply more energy than in a circuit without an inductor Part of the energy supplied by the battery appears as internal energy in the resistor The remaining energy is stored in the magnetic field of the inductor

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**Energy in a Magnetic Field, cont.**

Looking at this energy (in terms of rate) Ie is the rate at which energy is being supplied by the battery I2R is the rate at which the energy is being delivered to the resistor Therefore, LI (dI/dt) must be the rate at which the energy is being stored in the magnetic field

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**Energy in a Magnetic Field, final**

Let U denote the energy stored in the inductor at any time The rate at which the energy is stored is To find the total energy, integrate and

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**Energy Density of a Magnetic Field**

Given U = ½ L I2 and assume (for simplicity) a solenoid with L = mo n2 V Since V is the volume of the solenoid, the magnetic energy density, uB is This applies to any region in which a magnetic field exists (not just the solenoid)

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**Energy Storage Summary**

A resistor, inductor and capacitor all store energy through different mechanisms Charged capacitor Stores energy as electric potential energy Inductor When it carries a current, stores energy as magnetic potential energy Resistor Energy delivered is transformed into internal energy

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Mutual Inductance The magnetic flux through the area enclosed by a circuit often varies with time because of time-varying currents in nearby circuits This process is known as mutual induction because it depends on the interaction of two circuits

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**Mutual Inductance, 2 The current in coil 1 sets up a magnetic field**

Some of the magnetic field lines pass through coil 2 Coil 1 has a current I1 and N1 turns Coil 2 has N2 turns

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Mutual Inductance, 3 The mutual inductance M12 of coil 2 with respect to coil 1 is Mutual inductance depends on the geometry of both circuits and on their orientation with respect to each other

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**Induced emf in Mutual Inductance**

If current I1 varies with time, the emf induced by coil 1 in coil 2 is If the current is in coil 2, there is a mutual inductance M21 If current 2 varies with time, the emf induced by coil 2 in coil 1 is

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**Mutual Inductance, Final**

In mutual induction, the emf induced in one coil is always proportional to the rate at which the current in the other coil is changing The mutual inductance in one coil is equal to the mutual inductance in the other coil M12 = M21 = M The induced emf’s can be expressed as

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