Presentation on theme: "Institutional diversity: some trends and some hypotheses Richard Yelland OECD Directorate for Education OECD/France International Conference CNAM, 8-9."— Presentation transcript:
Institutional diversity: some trends and some hypotheses Richard Yelland OECD Directorate for Education OECD/France International Conference CNAM, 8-9 December 2008
Tertiary education has been growing for 50 years… but in some places much faster than others
Growth in all tertiary qualifications The percentage of persons with a minimum of 2 years of tertiary education born in the period shown below (2005) EAG, 2007 A1.3a
Tertiary education is expensive to provide…but in some places more so than in others
B6.2 Expenditure on educational core services, R&D and ancillary services in higher education institutions as a percentage of GDP (2004) % of GDP 1.Some levels of education are included with others. 2.Total expenditure at tertiary level including R&D expenditure 3.Year of reference 2005. 4.Total expenditure at tertiary level excluding R&D expenditure The US spends more than twice as much per higher education student as the European Union.
Higher education is becoming an increasingly international concern … especially in the English- speaking countries
Student mobility in tertiary education (2005) Percentage of international students enrolled in tertiary education C3.1 Note: The data on the mobility of international students presented are not comparable with data on foreign students in tertiary education (defined on the basis of citizenship) presented in pre-2006 editions of Education at a Glance.
There are big differences in what students are expected to pay, although fees are not the only cost factor for students and their families
Average annual tuition fees charged by public colleges and universities for full-time national students in US Dollars converted using PPPs (school year 2004/2005) Italy (56%) Austria (37%), Spain (43%), Czech Republic (41%), Denmark (57%), Finland (73%), Ireland (45%), Iceland (45%), Norway (76%), Poland (76%), Sweden (76%) Canada (m) Israel1 (55%) Australia (82%), Japan (41%), Korea (51%) United Kingdom1 (52%) New Zealand (79%), Netherland1s (59%) United States (64%) Belgium (Fr. and Fl.) (33%) Turkey (27%), France (m) 0 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 USD B5.1 1. Public institutions do not exist at this level of education and most of the students are enrolled in government dependent institutions. This chart does not take into account grants, subsidies or loans that partially or fully offset the students’ tuition fees.
Although institutions have grown in size, the number of higher education institutions has grown,from about 1000 in 1955, and about 5000 in 1970 to maybe 17000 today This growth in numbers has been accompanied by a diversification of institutional type
Growth in the number of higher education institutions 1955-2004
What do we know about the future? Wealthy, ageing and diverse Societies The global knowledge economy The expanding web Social and cultural change Economic crisis Trends shaping education, OECD 2008
Expected demographic changes within the population aged 20-29 (2005-2015) 2005= 100 A11.1
Expected demographic changes within the population aged 30 and over (2005-2015) 2005= 100 A11.1
Policy futures: a focus on quality OECD Education Ministers’ meeting Athens June 2006 OECD/UNESCO guidelines on cross-border tertiary education Proposed international assessment of higher education outcomes –Experts’ meetings –Feasibility study IMHE Conference Paris 8-10 September 2008 –Outcomes of higher education: quality, relevance and impact
The challenge for higher education Improving access while maintaining and improving quality – addressing the needs of the twenty-first century for human capital and innovation – securing adequate funding –Improving efficiency
What are the implications for institutional differentiation? Factors that foster diversity –History –Location –Growth –Competition –Demand –Autonomy Factors that foster homogeneity –Rankings –Internationalisation –Regulation –Accountability
The problem we have to resolve Finding reliable and practical ways to value the various outputs of higher education so that diversity of institutional mission can be achieved without reinforcing hierarchies between institutions. –Can we do this without creating an excessive administrative burden or causing new distortions?