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Blood supply to the brain

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Presentation on theme: "Blood supply to the brain"— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood supply to the brain

2 The brain is dependent on cerebral vasculature
Blood serves the brain like food serves the body. The brain uses 20% of the blood in the body. Arterial blood (carried in arteries, arterioles, capillaries) nourishes the brain by supplying: oxygen: The brain requires 25% of the body’s oxygen to function maximally glucose other nutrients Venous blood (carried in veins) removes metabolic waste (carbon dioxide, lactic acid, etc.) Which is the high-pressure system? Which is the low-pressure system? Why?

3 The brain is highly vulnerable to disturbance of its blood supply
Interruption of blood supply lasting only second can cause neurological symptoms Within minutes, interruptions of blood supply can cause irreversible neuronal damage Stroke, also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA) = brain damage cause by vascular disruptions, either Loss of blood supply, when an artery is blocked (occlusive stroke) Bleeding (hemorrhagic stroke)

4 Overview of arterial blood supply to brain
Two systems of arteries deliver glucose-, nutrient-, and oxygen-rich blood from the heart and aorta toward the brain Internal carotids (L&R) Vertebral (L&R)-basilar system These two systems are the inputs to a circular arterial loop at the base of the brain, called the Circle of Willis There is a in the middle of the circle The interconnections between blood vessels (anastomoses) in the Circle of Willis protect the brain when part of its vascular supply is blocked Common locations of blockages are indicated by the dark areas

5 Input from the internal carotids to the Circle of Willis
left right Heart  Aorta  Left common carotid branches directly off the aorta Right common carotid branches off of the right subclavian which branches off the aorta Each common carotid (L&R) splits into two arteries External carotid artery Internal carotid artery The internal carotids (L&R) connect to opposite sides of Circle of Willis

6 Input from the vertebral-basilar system to the Circle of Willis
left right Heart  Aorta  Subclavians (L & R) Vertebral arteries (L&R) branch off of the subclavians The two vertebrals join to form one basilar artery The basilar artery connects to posterior portion of Circle of Willis Note that branches off of the vertebral arteries and the basilar artery supply the cerebellum, spinal cord, and brain stem

7 Arterial outputs from the Circle of Willis to the brain
Three sets of paired outputs from the Circle of Willis deliver glucose-, nutrient-, and oxygen-rich blood into the brain Middle cerebral arteries Posterior cerebral arteries Anterior cerebral arteries


9 --the locations of inputs (green)
Circle of Willis: Schematic review of --the locations of inputs (green) Internal carotid Basilar artery --the output arteries (blue) ACAs MCAs PCAs --communicating arteries which complete the circle (pink) Anterior communicating (1) Posterior communicating (2)

10 Arterial blood supply to brain, in situ
Inferior view of brain anterior posterior Two systems of inputs (#s 3; 8 & 10), three systems of outputs (#s 2, 4, 6), plus two “communicating arteries” (#s 1, 5). (Note: #s 7, 9, and 11, are branches off of the vertebral and basilar arteries, and supply the cerebellum.)

11 Where do MCAs, ACAs, PCAs branch out after exiting Circle of Willis?
Lateral view of left hemisphere Approx. location of Circle of Willis Medial view of right hemisphere Note location of watershed region (where supply is received from >1 cerebral artery


13 Small branches of cerebral arteries supply core areas of brain
E.g. MCA

14 Branch of internal carotid
A coronal section, showing how cerebral arteries supply deep structures and white matter of brain, as well as cortex MCA MCA ACA PCA ACA Midbrain PCA Branch of internal carotid MCA branches

15 Strokes disrupt blood supply: Two types of stroke
90% vs. 10% Stroke / cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Occlusive (ischemic) stroke: Thrombosis or embolism Hemorrhagic: Hemorrhaged aneurysm, or bleed of arteriovenous malformation Area of infarct + surrounding penumbra




19 What does blood supply have to do with the brain, and with practice of SLP?
Knowing principle that “different structures in brain contribute to different functions” and using the clinicopathologic method SLP can make clinical (diagnostic and therapeutic) predictions and plans, based on the site(s) where arterial blood supply is lost knowledge that nervous tissue will be damaged or die at those sites knowledge of the kinds of functional changes associated with damage in that/those place(s) E.g. left side of cerebrum vs. right side of cerebrum E.g. cerebellum E.g. brainstem

20 Some clinical applications (a preview)
The internal carotids supply more blood to cerebrum than vertebral-basilar system Left MCA supplies the lateral left cortex, which is associated with the function of ______________ Right MCA supplies the lateral right cortex, associated with the function of __________________ Proximal branches of both MCAs supply the putamen and caudate, which are part of ______, important for movement PCAs supply thalamus, which is a gateway for all neural pathways going to the cerebral cortex, including those that arouse (wake up) the cortex. (Remember limbic/olfactory?) PCAs supply occipital lobe, important for __________ ACAs supply medial cerebrum, important for sensori-motor functions of _________________ Vertebral-basilar system supplies the brain stem important for ___________ and cerebellum, important for _________

21 Blood supply to the spinal cord

22 Spinal cord: Clinico-pathologic method
Anterior spinal artery Supply anterior two-thirds of spinal cord Symptoms Hemiplegia & loss of pain & temperature Posterior spinal artery Supply dorsal surface of the cord Loss of discriminative touch

23 Blood-Brain Barrier

24 Blood-Brain Barrier First Line of Defense
Functional in only CNS vessels Restriction of movement of harmful (infectious microorganisms) substances from blood to brain tissue Medical implications Exclusion of antibodies, making treatment of cerebral infections difficult

25 Venous sinus system of the brain

26 VENOUS SINUS SYSTEM Functions Collection of deoxygenated blood
Transportation back to heart Veins emptying into sinuses Dural sinuses Separation of periosteal & meningeal dural layers




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