Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

E8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 1 DateTitleSub-titleGrid connection Supplied power SizeGensetOther.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "E8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 1 DateTitleSub-titleGrid connection Supplied power SizeGensetOther."— Presentation transcript:

1 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 1 DateTitleSub-titleGrid connection Supplied power SizeGensetOther RNE Battery system Note April 1 (Tue) SHSDC SHSOffDC< 1kWNo YesBy Mr. Wade AC SHSOffAC< 1kWNo YesBy Mr. Wade April 2 (Wed) Mini gridPV Mini grid OffAC1 - 50kWNo Yes50 to 600 Households Battery charge station PV hybrid systems within mini-grid OffAC10 – 500kWOptional (a few hours per day) Wind biomass micro-hydro etc. OptionalNew components April 3 (Thu) Grid connected Large PV system & Hybrid system Grid connected large PV system OnAC> 40kWNo OptionalWith reliable grid (24H supply) Grid connected hybrid system OnAC> 100kWBasically No. Optional (a few hours per day) Wind biomass micro-hydro etc. OptionalWith reliable grid (24H supply) 3-4. PV hybrid systems within mini-grid

2 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 2 3-4-1. System configuration PV panel Inverter Battery PCS For a village (10 – 500kW) Delivers the power to the households and common equipments through a grid Isolated, low voltage AC distribution systems Biomass Wind Micro-hydro Genset (runs for only a few hours per day)

3 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 3 3-4-2. Examples (1) Installed in 2004 at Noyon, Mongolia by NEDO (Sharp) 3 phase AC for school, hospital, government office and residential houses 200kW PV, 2 * 1,000Ah battery, 3 * 100kW gensets To realize suitable load dispatching for 3 gensets Source: NEDO

4 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 4 Operation pattern Wee hoursDaytimeNighttime PMAM Supply from PVCharge to battery Supply from batterySupply from genset Source: NEDO Power center 100kW Hospital 40kW School 40kW Sum center 10kW Communication center 10kW Battery #1 Battery #2 PC SL1 PC SL2 PC SL3 PC SL5 PC SL6 PC SL4 Generation 28,477kWh Charging 5,796kWh Generation 28,850kWh Charging 4,318kWh Generation 7,274kWh Generation 7,176kWh Generation 2,570kWh Generation 2,091kWh Total power supply 95,299kWh Diesel generator #1 - #3 Generation 19,009kWh 3-4-2. Examples (1)

5 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 5 3-4-2. Examples (1) Key point in Operation –Rational use of generated power  Awareness of energy conservation  Use of high energy efficiency appliances –Reasonable tariff system  Avoid no charge and/or fixed price  Charge it on consumed energy –Fairness on charge collection system –Development/improvement of distribution system Source: NEDO

6 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 6 3-4-2. Examples (2) Installed in 2006 at Udomsai, Lao by NEDO (TEPCO+IEEJ) 200V AC for 10 villages (approx 900 houses, 5,000 peoples) 100kW PV, 80kW micro-hydro, 8 * 7.5kW pumps Instead of battery, use pumped storage system Source: NEDO

7 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 7 3-4-2. Examples (2) Source: NEDO System configuration Mini hydro (80kW) Lifting pump (7.5kW * 8 ) Transformer 10 Villages, 900 households, 5,000 peoples Upper reservoir Lower reservoir Upper dam Dummy load governor PV array (100kW) Spillway

8 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 8 3-4-2. Examples (2) Source: NEDO Pattern 1 Pump up at daytime, generation by mini-hydro at nighttime Pattern 2 Pattern 1 + generation by river-in-flow Pattern 3 Pattern 2 + pump up at light load hours in night Operation pattern Pattern 4 Load dispatching by PV and mini-hydro

9 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 9 3-4-3. Other power source: Genset PrincipleFeatureDisadvantage Diesel generator Continuous combustion -> Combustion gas -> Reciprocating motion -> Rotational motion by crankshaft High heat efficiency (35-45%) Low cost Rapid start-up Automatic start/stop Vibration Noise Emission (NOx) Gas engineCleaner emission than DG Smaller than DG Available dual fuel system Vibration Noise Gas turbineContinuous combustion -> Heat energy of combustion gas -> Rotational motion by turbine Compact and light weight No cooling water Good for rapid load change Good starting performance Possible no load operation Small vibration Slow start-up than DG Large fuel consumption Large air intake and emission

10 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 10 3-4-3. Other power source: Genset Fuel consumption vs output of diesel generator –High fuel consumption ratio under 50% output Output (%) 100 76 56 39 100 11075 5025 112 80 100 120 140 160 Fuel consumption (%) Fuel consumption ratio (%)

11 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 11 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro Features Environmental friendliness Clean energy contributing global warming Short construction time and easy maintenance Regional vitalization Reduction of running cost at existing water facility More reliable energy source than PV or Wind Source: NEDO

12 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 12 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro Utilize water flow and head (potential energy) –Generated power = gravitational-const. x flow x head How to utilize water –Run-off –Reservoir (for seasonal operation) –Pondage (for daily operation) –Pumped storage How to get head –Channel type –Dam type –Dam and channel type Special type for Mini-hydro –Direct installation at gate/weir –Alternative to pressure regulator Source: NEDO

13 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 13 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro TypeFeatureFlow control Horizontal Francis turbine Wide range in head and flow Installed widely from small to large scale Controlled flow by guide-vane, but expensive Yes Horizontal propeller water turbine Good for small head No flow controller For seasonal change of water flow, multiple units installation is made. No Reverse pump turbine Generation by reverse rotation of conventional pump Low cost, low efficiency No Source: NEDO

14 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 14 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro TypeFeatureFlow control All-in-one submerged turbine with generator Generation by reverse rotation of submerged pump with generator Low cost, low efficiency Need Access to machine by taking out from water No Cross-flow water turbine For middle/small scale With guide vane Low efficiency degradation at small flow Simple structure, easy maintenance Yes Pelton turbine Good for large head Installed widely from small to large scale Low cost, low efficiency Flow control by needle Expensive Yes Source: NEDO

15 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 15 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro TypeFeatureFlow control Turgo- impulse turbine For medium/small scale Flow control by moving needle inside nozzle Low efficiency degradation at small flow Simple structure, easy maintenance Yes Overshot/ undershot water wheel What we call waterwheel Not for generation because of low head and small flow, but good for monument Simple structure, easy maintenance No Source: NEDO

16 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 16 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro Possible application Target flow Target siteCharacteristics FlowHead/PressureOthers River Channel Mountain stream Mountain runoff Sand prevention dam Torrent Large fluctuation Possible heavy flood Easily obtainable head by steep slope Suffering driftwood Risk of banking sand, landslide or water disaster Maintenance of river system Hilly area, highland, Slope section of flat land or water intake facility Fluctuation Possible of flood/drought Flow-down of garbage Possible water pollution Hard to obtain large head except for heavy slope Near to demand area Limitation of usage by flood/drought Necessity of dust removal Maintenance of river system Environmental friendliness

17 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 17 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro Possible application Target flowTarget siteCharacteristics FlowHead/PressureOthers Agricultural water Main line Channel Water pipe line Large difference in flow between irrigation season and non-irrigation season Hard to obtain large head by low-gradient Depends on height of end-point Sub line Difference in flow between irrigation season and non- irrigation season Fluctuation of intake by agricultural field Flow-down of garbage Necessity of dust removal Maintenance of river system Environmental friendliness Control point of flow, pressure and inclination Easily obtainable head, but maybe small head Modification or improvement of existing facility

18 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 18 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro Possible application Target flowTarget siteCharacteristics FlowHead/PressureOthers Industrial and daily life water Water transmission line Relatively constant flow Easily obtainable head by remote demand area from source Possible water pipe Industrial effluent and sewage Discharge channel Easily obtainable of constant flow Depends on tail water level Water quality Emergency stop by facility trouble In-house supply and drain water system Supply and drain water channel Stable Various flow quantity depends on production process Utilization of regulated and surplus water pressure Easily obtainable head or pressure Necessity of consideration about harmlessness against primary water use

19 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 19 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro Example of direct installation Gate Generator Example of installation at sand prevention dam Water intake Sand prevention dam Water channel Generator house

20 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 20 3-4-4. Other power source: Micro-hydro Egasaki control room, Water works dept of Kawasaki city Water source: Piping for city water Utilization of head at water piping Max available head: 36.09m [118.4ft] Horizontal propeller hydraulic turbine (2 sets) Water flow: 0.6m 3 /s [21.2 ft 3 /s] Output: 170kW(max), 90kW(normal) Expected energy generated: 540,000kWh/year Distribution reservoir Head Purification plant Water flow Existing pressure regulator Generator Source: Kawasaki city

21 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 21 3-4-5. Other power source: Biomass energy Features Stock-able fuel Clean energy –Carbon neutral –Low NOX and SOX emission –Carbon dioxide absorption via tree planting Renewable energy to realize recycling society Contribution to job creation and/or industry revitalization Vitalization of agricultural community Source: NEDO

22 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 22 3-4-5. Other power source: Biomass energy Biomass resources Unutilized resource Woody materialRemaining materials at forest land, thinned wood, unused tree Remaining material of lumbering, scrap wood from construction, others PaperUsed paper, sludge from paper production, black liquor Agricultural residue Rice straw, rice husk, straw, bagasse, others Night soil, dung and sludge Cow dung, pig dung, chicken dung, others Sewage sludge, sludge from night soil purification Leftover foodWaste from food processing wholesale market and food retailing Kitchen waste from home and restaurant Waste cooking oil OthersLandfill gas, waste fiber Productive resource Woody materialShort cycle cultivated lumber Herbal materialGrass, waterweed, see grass OthersSugar, starch, palm oil, rape oil

23 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 23 3-4-5. Other power source: Biomass energy Biomass processing Thermo chemical conversion Direct combustion gasificationMolten gasification Partial oxidation gasification Cold fluidized bed gasification Supercritical water gasification LiquidizationFast pylolysis Slurry fuel Carbonization Esterification Biochemical conversion Methane fermentationWet process Dry process Two-stage fermentation Ethanol fermentation

24 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 24 3-4-5. Other power source: Biomass energy Silo Scrap wood Lumber mill Turbine/ generator Boiler Power to other load Power to factory load Direct combustion system for woody material Source: NEDO

25 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 25 3-4-5. Other power source: Biomass energy Gasification generation system for woody material Belt conveyer Hawking unit Slide gate Gasification unit Electric cylinder Gasifyer Electric cylinder Rostle oscillating unit Engine generator Electric valve Heat recovery unit Waste gas combustion unit Bypass Automatic igniter Propane gas bottle Auxiliary panel On/Off signal Control panel Source: NEDO

26 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 26 3-4-5. Other power source: Biomass energy Typical example of furnace Rotary kilnStoker furnace Source: NEDO

27 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 27 3-4-5. Other power source: Biomass energy Yagi bio ecology center Generator Fermenter, gas holder Source: NEDO

28 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 28 3-4-5. Other power source: Biomass energy Yagi bio ecology center Source: NEDO Cow dung, pig dung, straw, sawdust Receiving tank Bean curd refuse Raw water tank Gas holder Fremen- ter Waste water treatment Reuse Effluent to river Compost Dehydrated cake Liquid fertilizer Desulfer ization Digestion tank Hot water boiler (backup) Surplus gas combustion Power Digestion tank Digestive juice Hydro extractor Waste water treatment (Existing) Digestive gas Hot water Digestion bath Fremen- ter Digestive gas Gas holder Generator

29 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 29 3-4-6. Other power source: Wind power Features Clean energy –No carbon dioxide emission Domestic energy resource Renewable energy Most economical among new energy resources Stable generation cost Awareness for energy and global warming issue Contribution to local region Source: NEDO

30 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 30 3-4-6. Other power source: Wind power Windmill Multi-bladed Darrieus Sabonius type Puddle Cross-flow S-shaped rotor Drag type Straight wing Vertical axis Horizontal axis Lift type Propeller Sail wing Holland type Up wind Down wind Multi-bladed Darrieus Sabonius type Puddle Cross-flow S-shaped rotor Straight wing Vertical axis Horizontal axis PropellerSail wing Holland type Source: NEDO

31 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 31 3-4-6. Other power source: Wind power TypeFeature Horizontal axis Simple structure High efficiency Easy to scale-up Good for generation Need yaw control for up-wind type Heavy load exists in nacelle. Vertical axis Not depend on wind direction Heavy load exists on ground. Easy manufacturing of blade compared to propeller Hard to control rotation speed Need large torque in start-up Lower efficiency rather than horizontal axis type Large footprint Lift type Good for generation by higher peripheral velocity than wind speed Less blades has higher peripheral velocity Drag type Many application in small scale Large torque Peripheral velocity is less than wind speed Good for pump-up and grinding flour Lower efficiency than lift type Source: NEDO

32 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 32 3-4-6. Other power source: Wind power Blade Speed-up gear Generator Drive train axis Anemovane Nacelle Communication line Console Monitoring system Transf ormer Hub Rotor axis Tower Power conversion system Controller Foundation Report Brake system Yaw drive unit Power pole Protection system Distribution line Display board Source: NEDO

33 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 33 3-4-6. Other power source: Wind power Rotor (fixed speed) Rotor (variable speed) Induction generator Synchronous generator Speed-up gear 3 phase AC (power freq.) Rotor (variable speed) Speed-up gear 3 phase AC (power freq.) 3 phase AC (power freq.) (a) AC link (Induction generator) (b) DC link (Induction generator) (c) DC link (Synchronous generator) DC Converter Inverter Converter 3 phase AC (control freq.) 3 phase AC (control freq.) 3 phase AC (power freq.) Source: NEDO

34 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 34 3-4-7. Planning & design Survey of various REN Concept design of the system Investigation of target site Determination of equipment spec. Estimate project cost Determine operation pattern Estimate maintenance cost Estimate total running cost Analyze cost/benefit Effect on environmental protection Effect on energy conservation Implementation System, equip. spec., supplier, capacity, supply characteristics, reliability, cost and so on. Demand characteristics, energy cost, electricity tariff REN main unit, inverter, grid connection, battery, env. measure Generation cost, distribution cost, cash flow Estimate supplied power and energy

35 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 35 3-4-7. Check list on planning (1) Concept and purpose –For what?  Purposed should be shared among concerned parties. –Where?  In existing facility or not? Exact location. –What load?  Characteristics and size of load. Enough space for installed equipment? –Which system?  Isolated or grid-connected? With battery or not? –When and how much?  Construction schedule and cost. Can it be available?

36 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 36 3-4-7. Planning & design Output fluctuation of REN –Effect on voltage and frequency –Traditional generator absorbs fluctuation of load, but REN generates fluctuation. –Without output adjustable power source, it’s very difficult to keep voltage and frequency. Measures –Measures at each REN –Hybrid with other power source –Use of battery system –Use of dummy load

37 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 37 3-4-7. Planning & design How to have power source for base load –Requirement  Reliability  Power controllability  Low generation cost Can REN be a base power source? –Micro-hydro: Possible, if stable flow exists. –Wind: Low reliability. But wind firm may be. –PV: No, because of daytime only –Biomass: Possible, if stable fuel supply exists.

38 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 38 3-4-7. Planning & design Combination of various REN ReliabilityPower controllability Generation cost Constrain on site Difficulty on maintenance Total evaluation Micro-hydro (river-in-flow) Micro-hydro (storage pond) Wind PV Biomass

39 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 39 3-4-7. Planning & design Hybrid of REN (without genset) a.Improve reliability  Complementary combination:  Enlarge storage reservoir b.Improve power controllability and realize output smoothing  Not one big REN, but many small REN c.Common-use of electrical equipment Power source for base loadBiomassMicro-hydro (storage pond) Micro-hydro (river-in-flow) WindPV ba, bab Winda, b, c, c Micro-hydro (river-in-flow) a, c Micro-hydro (storage pond) a, c Biomass

40 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 40 3-4-7. Planning & design of micro-hydro Concept design of micro-hydro –Layout of major engineering structure –Identify head –Investigate information of water flow –Design of max water consumption Basic design of major engineering structure –Civil –Electrical

41 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 41 3-4-7. Planning & design of wind power Concept design –Site selection –Investigate information of wind condition –Investigate surrounding natural and social condition Basic design –Detail survey of wind condition –Wind measurement (point, method) –Analysis of measured data –Simulation –Evaluation  Finalize point and capacity –Environmental assessment –Land and soil survey

42 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 42 3-4-7. Planning & design of biomass energy Concept design –Identify biomass resource  Cost  Supply stability –How to collect biomass?  In-house, collection, delivered –Investigation of plant size  Amount of biomass resource, area, demand –How to use energy (power, heat) –Reuse/disposal of by-product (dust, sludge, effluent…)

43 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 43 3-4-7. Check list on planning (2) Project team –Establish team and assign project manager –How to select the designer? –What is bidding strategy of construction work? –How can we maintain and manage the system?

44 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 44 3-4-7. Check list on planning (3) Site survey –Ambient environment  Any obstacles to receive energy resources?  Shadow of building, tree, mountain, stack, utility pole, steel tower, sign board and so on.  Effect of fallen leaves and sand dust, snow cover (depth and frequency)  Salt and/or lightning damage, wind condition – collect all the possible obstacles – Installed site  Shape, width, direction, drainage, condition of foundation, volume of construction work, carry-in route, Waterproof of the building, effect on landscape –Electrical facility  Existing diagram and plot plan, space availability, wiring route and space carry-in route

45 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 45 3-4-7. Check list on planning (4) Preliminary consultation –Local authority – Construction work, fire department, necessity of permission –Available subsidy –Information collection from expert/consultants Concept check –Is it firm concept? Site, load, system size and configuration –Is schedule fixed? –Is budget made based on expected generation output and its cost?

46 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 46 3-4-7. Check list on design (5) Reconfirmation of design condition –Firm policy? – For what? Where? How big? How is the system? When? How much? –Constraints – Ambient environment, Site condition, existing electrical equipment, regulation, necessary procedure Design –Direction and angle of PV panel – maximize output under the given condition –Array configuration and its installation –Foundation, mounting frame, waterproof, intensity calculation –Material, antirust and anti-corrosion of mounting frame material –Compliance with regulation –In accordance with the project purpose –Established schedule, expected result and project cost. Application –Subsidy –Application for local authority Design check –Fixed detail design, budget, construction schedule? –Finish all the necessary application? –Completed adequate bidding?

47 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 47 3-4-8. Operation & maintenance Load forecasting is most important. Aim to full utilize PV power. Reserve battery energy for emergency case. Adjust charge/discharge energy in accordance with varying load. Daytime: Battery charge by REN source Nighttime: Battery discharge for load Investigate charge/discharge time Calculate required battery capacity Source: NEDO


Download ppt "E8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 1 DateTitleSub-titleGrid connection Supplied power SizeGensetOther."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google