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Test Results… How well did you prepare?

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1 Test Results… How well did you prepare?
Re-read the packet, skim your notes, quiz yourself on vocabulary, reread/correct the quizzes? IF you did not understand a concept, did you come to tutorials to ask me? (you should) Be more prepared for the next test, starting now. Complete the ch 3 vocab and Key Issue 1 and 2 notes over the weekend.

2 Migration Chapter 3 An Introduction to Human Geography
The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 3 Migration PPT by Abe Goldman

3 What is it? Right, the movement of people…almost Add the word permanent and you have it. The permanent movement of people from one location to another.

4 Key Issue Questions Why do people migrate?
Where are migrants distributed? Why do migrants face obstacles? Why do people migrate within a country?

5 KI 1: Why Do People Migrate?
Reasons for migrating Push and pull factors • Economic • Cultural • Environmental – Intervening obstacles Distance of migration Internal migration International migration Characteristics of migrants Gender Family status

6 Reasons for migrating Economic Push and Pull Factors
Cultural Push and Pull Factors Environmental Push and Pull Factors


8 Economic Push and Pull Factors
Average Wages in Mexico per hour Food worker – 4.62 Textiles – 2.98 Chem. – 4.97 Glass – 5.15 Mach. – 4.54 Average Wages in US per hour Food worker – 8.12 Textiles – 9.50 Chem. – 15.85 Glass – 14.26 Mach. – 11.32 All figures in US$.

9 Undocumented Immigration: Mexico to Arizona
Fig. 3-7: The complex route of one group of undocumented migrants from a small village north of Mexico City to Phoenix, Arizona.

10 Cultural Push and Pull Factors
Forced Migration – Historical reasons 1. Slavery 2. Political instability/war Forced Migration – 20th century Political instability


12 Forced labor camps in Soviet Union--- called Gulags


14 The Berlin Wall– constructed to stop migration out of Communist Eastern Europe/USSR

15 Kurds have migrated for many reasons– political and cultural
Kurds have migrated for many reasons– political and cultural. Forced migration from Iraq under Saddam Hussein.

16 Other Cultural Push and Pull
Civil Liberties Religion Language Food? Styles of clothing?


18 Environmental Push and Pull Factors
Mountains Seasides Warm Climates Push Factors Water is usually the main cause Desertification Weather Floods Hurricanes Tsunami


20 2004 Tsunami Indonesia


22 What is a refugee? Does the US accept refugees? Do other countries? Why? Why not?

23 Refugees: Sources and destinations
Fig. 3-1: Major source and destination areas of both international and internal refugees.

24 With your partner.. Each student will create a visual representation of Push-Pull Factor. Organize it by Economic, Cultural and Environmental.



27 Ravenstein’s Migration Laws write these down.
1. Most relocate a short distance and remain within same country 2. Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity 3. Each migration flow produces a compensating counter-flow. 4. Natives of towns are less migratory than those from rural areas. 5. Females are more migratory than males. 6. Economic factors are the main cause of migration.

28 Ravenstein’s Migration Laws Impact on Urban Areas
There is a process of absorption, whereby people immediately surrounding a rapidly growing town move into it and the gaps they leave are filled by migrants from more distant areas, and so on until the attractive force [pull factors] is spent. There is a process of dispersion, which is the inverse of absorption.

29 Key Issue 2: Where are Migrants Distributed?
Global migration patterns U.S. migration patterns -- Colonial immigration --19th century immigration -- Recent immigration Impact of immigration on the U.S. -- Legacy of European migration -- Undocumented immigration -- Destination of immigrants within the U.S.

30 Global Migration Patterns
Based on the demographic data you saw in Ch 2, what generalization can we make about global migration patterns? Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.

31 Net Migration (per population)
Afghanistan Somalia Fig. 3-3: Net migration per 1,000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.

32 U.S. Migration 1607 – 1840 Two major sources European (2 million)
Vast majority from British Isles – 90% England - Scotland -Wales Other prominent groups Germans - Dutch Swedes - Norwegian French African (600,000)

33 U.S. Immigration in the 1800s Mainly from N. and W. Europe
First Peak: 1840s and 1850s German – Political instability Irish – Environmental Second Peak: 1870 – 1890 N & W Europe move into Stage 2 Germans & Irish Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden)

34 U.S. Immigration 1900 – 1920s Third Peak 1895 – 1924
Southern & Eastern Europe enter Stage 2 Nearly 1 Million a year Peak 1907 w/ 1.3 million In 1910 – 14% of U.S. population foreign-born or had one parent who was foreign-born 25% - Italy 25% - Russian 25% - Hungary, Czech Rep, Slovakia, Poland, Romania, Greece, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia

35 U.S. Immigration 1920s – 1950s Massive Decline Reaction to influx
Quota Act (1921) National Origins Act (1924) ---Set limits on who could immigrate for each country that had native-born persons ---2% could immigrate each year ---Based on 1890 census Depression and War (1930’s-40’s)

36 Recent U.S. Immigration 1950 – 2000
Asian 1800 – 1970: 1 million 1950 – 2000: 7 million Largest group of immigrants Latin American 1820 – 1960: 2 million 1960 – 2000: 11 million Largest group of immigrants present

37 Migration to U.S., by region of origin
Fig. 3-4: Most migrants to the U.S. were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America and Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.




41 Migration from Asia to the U.S.
Fig. 3-5: Migration in The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

42 Migration from Latin America to the U.S.
Fig. 3-6: Mexico has been the largest source of migrants to the U.S., but migrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.

43 U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations
Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all U.S. immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.

44 Undocumented Immigration: Mexico to Arizona
Fig. 3-7: The complex route of one group of undocumented migrants from a small village north of Mexico City to Phoenix, Arizona.

45 With your partner, again.
Create a visual representation of the waves of US immigration. Use Key Issue 2. Homework: Finish notes/outlines of Key Issues 1 and 2, complete the Ch 3 vocabulary into your notes.

46 Wednesday On your desk: Ch 3 Notes (key issues 1 and 2). Pen/pencil. Study your push-pull and your immigration pages. You may NOT use these on the quiz. Quiz will begin shortly. Warm-up: discuss with your neighbor when your ancestors immigrated, and from where? Do you know?

47 After the quiz… Read and begin taking notes from Key Issue 3 & 4.
Complete the vocabulary for all of Ch 3 into your notes. Next class we are doing a DBQ poster (Document Based Question) Please bring markers, scissors, glue if you can.

48 Key Issue 3: Why do Migrants Face Obstacles?
I. Immigration policies of host countries A. U.S. quota laws B. Temporary migration for work C. Time-contract workers D. Economic migrants or refugees? II. Cultural problems living in other countries A. U.S. attitudes to immigrants B. Attitudes to guest workers

49 Historical obstacles: ocean, mountain, etc.
Present obstacles: border issues, government permission, hostile attitudes.

50 US Quota Laws Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907) Quota Act (1921) National Origins Act (1924) Immigration Act of 1965 Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986)

51 What is brain drain? Large scale emigration by talented people.
Countries often give preference to skilled/educated workers. Think of the countries that send young people to get educated at US colleges…they often stay here, therefore “draining” their own country of and intellectual person.

52 Guest Workers in Europe
Fig. 3-9: Guest workers emigrate mainly from Eastern Europe and North Africa to work in the wealthier countries of Western Europe.

53 What status do guest workers have?
Often very low status. Guest workers often work the lowest level, low-skilled jobs that local people would rather not do. (trash collection, construction, etc)

54 Emigration from China Fig. 3-10: Various ethnic Chinese peoples have distinct patterns of migration to other Asian countries.

55 Refugee or Economic Migrant?
How can countries distinguish these? Historically it has been difficult. 1959 Cuban revolutionCommunism 1980 Castro released many people (political prisoners, criminals,etc) 1980 Haitians came claiming economic push/pull reasons. US denied them Vietnam War ended in 1975 Communism Many Vietnamese left on boats in hopes of becoming refugees.


57 Migration of Vietnamese Boat People
Fig. 3-11: Many Vietnamese fled by sea as refugees after the war with the U.S. ended in Later boat people were often considered economic migrants.


59 Happy Friday 11-11-11 On your desk: Ch 3 notes, pen/pencil.
Warm-up: introduce yourself to your group…. Share an experience with your group of a time in your life when you felt totally misjudged and mistreated. What were the circumstances? Why did it happen? What was your reaction? What was the outcome?

60 Key issue 4: Migration within a Country
I. Migration between regions of a country (interregional) A. Migration between regions within the U.S. B. Migration between regions in other countries II. Migration within one region (intraregional) A. Rural-urban migration B. Urban-suburban migration C. Migration from metropolitan to non-metropolitan regions


62 Center of Population in the U.S.
Fig. 3-12: The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the population migration west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to the southern sunbelt.

63 Other Major Interregional Shifts in US history
African Americans migrating from the South to Northern and Western urban areas (1915 – 1945) Growth of West Coast economy (1940 – 1980)

64 Interregional Migration in the U.S.
Fig. 3-13: Average annual migrations between regions in the U.S. in 1995 and in 2000. What was a leading cause of this migration pattern in the 1990s?


66 Interregional Migration in other countries
How have these countries experienced or encouraged interregional migration? Russia Brazil Indonesia Europe India

67 Russia Russian policy put factories near raw materials rather than existing population centers

68 Brazil To increase the attractiveness of the interior, the government moved its capital from Rio to Brasilia in 1960.

69 Indonesia Since 1969 the Indonesian government has paid for the migration of more than 5 million people, primarily from the island of Java, where nearly 2/3rd of the people live, to less populated islands.

70 Europe During the Cold War migration from Eastern Europe to Western Europe was effectively blocked by the “Iron Curtain.” With the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, movement has been from east to west.

71 India An example of restricting interregional migration is found in India. Indians require a permit to migrate – or even visit – the State of Assam. The restrictions are designed to protect the ethnic identity of Assamese.

72 Intraregional Migration in the U.S.
Fig. 3-14: Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the U.S. during the 1990s. The largest flow was from central cities to suburbs.






78 QUIZ NEXT CLASS OVER Key Issues 3 and 4
QUIZ NEXT CLASS OVER Key Issues 3 and 4. Be prepared with full notes and vocabulary.


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