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Nutrition Counseling and Education Skills for Dietetics Professionals

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Counseling and Education Skills for Dietetics Professionals"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition Counseling and Education Skills for Dietetics Professionals
6th Edition

2 Chapter 12 Implementing and Evaluating Learning

3 Objectives Explain the advantages and disadvantages of various educational methods and techniques Discuss the educational methods and techniques appropriate in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains Compile a task analysis List the ways in which instruction can be organized and sequenced Identify the purposes of an educational evaluation

4 Objectives (Con’t) Explain several types of evaluation
Prepare a lesson plan Compare and contrast formative and summative evaluations, norm-referenced and criterion- referenced evaluations, and reliability and validity Plan, implement, and evaluate an educational presentation for a specific target audience

5 “I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand.” Confucius

6 7 Steps to Effective Education (con’t from Chapter 11)
Step 4: Select methods, techniques, materials, resources Step 5: Implement learning experiences (intervention) Step 6: Evaluate progress & outcomes of leaning Step 7: Document outcomes & results

7 Step 4: Select Methods/Techniques
Instructor plans, organizes, presents information Each method has advantages & disadvantages

8 Lecture Method Useful with large numbers & limited time
But learner is passive, only listening No guarantee of behavior change Not suitable for all objectives

9 Discussion Method More active learner; more interesting
Smaller groups (10-15) Seat in circle More time consuming

10 Simulation Method Learning by doing
Ex: Scenarios, critical incidents, role playing Requires critical thinking/problem solving Connects theory and practice Can be time consuming

11 Demonstration Method Demonstration by instructor Realistic
Give learner chance to practice

12 Visual & Audio-Assisted Instruction
Computer programs Video conferencing Videotape, DVD Both visual & audio stimulation An adjunct to learning

13 Step 5: Techniques/Methods for Three Domains of Learning
Cognitive Affective Psychomotor

14 Cognitive Domain Methods
Most methods are effective but most affective with mixed methods - Lecture not effective at higher levels in the domain

15 Affective Domain Methods
Need learner involvement Changing attitudes/values takes time Guided discussion, inquiry learning, experiments Solve problems, use audiovisuals Model by observing others

16 Psychomotor Domain Methods
Need direct experience Demonstration Repeated practice over time Coaching

17 Task Analysis: Job Related Tasks
Sequential list of steps in task Put in writing Used by trainer and trainee

18 Job Instruction Training System
Four step process Training on the job Preparation step Presentation step Performance step Follow up step

19 Sequencing Instruction Promotes Learning
From general to specific From specific to general From familiar to unfamiliar From simple to complex

20 Sequencing Instruction (con’t)
Base on logic Base on frequency of use of information Base on interest/concerns of learner

21 Step 6: Evaluation of Results
Evaluation: A systematic appraisal of the quality, effectiveness, and worth of an endeavor. Compare quality/effectiveness to a standard One forms value judgments

22 Measurement/Educational Assessment
The process of collecting and quantifying data in terms of numbers of the extent, degree, or capacity of people’s learning in knowledge, attitudes, skills, performance, behavioral change. Evaluation is based on measurement

23 Testing A kind of measurement
Determines degree to which a person possesses certain attributes

24 Planning for Evaluation
Define objectives & outcomes Design evaluation based on objectives Choose what to evaluate Decide how & when to collect data Construct collection instrument

25 Planning for Evaluation (con’t)
Implement data collection Analyze results Report results Set new course of action

26 Purposes of Evaluation
For determining effectiveness of program/training For quality control For planning and improvement For justification

27 Purposes of Evaluation (con’t)
Identify strengths/areas to improve Show accountability Tells if learning objectives achieved Helps rediagnose learning needs

28 Formative Evaluation Occurs before or during learning
Use focus groups, interviews, surveys Helps diagnose problems/improvements Allows revising plans early Qualitative

29 Summative Evaluation Assess at the end of learning activity
Appraises results, outcomes, quality, worth Judges effectiveness of learning Quantitative

30 Norm-Referenced Method
Compares with group norm, typical performance Used by schools Less appropriate for adults

31 Criterion-Referenced Method
Compares with predefined, objective standards Shows what learner can/cannot do Assesses according to performance objectives More diagnostic

32 Types of Evaluation/Outcomes
Select what to evaluate May want to combine choices

33 Measure Participant Reaction to Program/Activities
A happiness index Subjective judgments of value of what learned or approaches used

34 Measure Behavioral Change
In dietary behaviors/food choices/exercise In employee performance Has training transferred to the job? More difficult to measure

35 Measure Organizational Results
Quality and/or quantity of work done Benefits to company Efficiency/productivity/employee morale Dollar savings that result

36 Measure Learning – Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor
Compare with performance objectives Develop situations based on objectives Attitudes/values difficult to measure

37 Measure Other Outcomes
Psychosocial outcomes Physiological/biological measures Eating behavioral change based on self reports Environmental/organizational changes

38 Data Collection Techniques
Test Questionnaires Interviews and self-reports Observation Performance test and measures Ratings and checklists

39 1. Tests – Written & Oral Ex: multiple choice, essay
Measure cognitive domain Written tests less appropriate for adults

40 2. Questionnaires Assess attitudes & values
Assess cognitive objectives

41 3. Interviews Assess cognitive & affective objectives
Preplan the questions in advance

42 4. Visual Observation Define what to observe Use observation checklist
Good for psychomotor objectives

43 5. Performance Tests Simulated or actual
Assess cognitive & psychomotor objectives

44 6. Rating Scales/Checklists
Define all terms Need to train evaluators

45 7. Performance Measures Individual or group measures

46 8. Self-Reports/Self-Monitoring
May be distorted or inaccurate Information may be missing

47 Validity of Measurements
Do we measure what we intend to? Content-related validity Construct-related validity Criterion-related validity

48 Reliability Educational Outcomes
Consistency and accuracy over time

49 Lesson Plans Summary information about instruction
Pre-assessment/needs assessment Performance objectives Content outline (introduction, body, conclusion) Sequence of content

50 Lesson Plans (con’t) Activities to reach objectives
Techniques/methods of instruction Educational materials, visuals Facilities; time allotted Method to evaluate results/outcomes References

51 Step 7: Documentation Mandated by JCAHO (Joint Commission)
In patient/client records Document assessment, diagnosis, intervention, outcomes Document in employee records

52 PES Approach to Documentation
Problem (specific nutrition diagnosis) Etiology or cause Signs/symptoms Document nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnosis, nutrition intervention, monitoring and evaluation

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