Presentation on theme: "How much do you know? 1. How many blood cells are destroyed in the human body in one second? 150,000 15,000,000 150,000,000 2. A man’s heartbeat is faster."— Presentation transcript:
1 How much do you know?1. How many blood cells are destroyed in the human body in one second?150,00015,000,000150,000,0002. A man’s heartbeat is faster than a women’s. True or False?TrueFalse
2 How much do you know?3. The adult's heart pumps about 15,140 litres of blood in what amount of time?One dayOne hourOne week
3 How much do you know?4. How long (on average) does it take for blood to circulate around the WHOLE body?23 seconds23 minutes23 hours
4 How much do you know? clear 7. Human blood on its own is in colour. Haemoglobin, a pigment in the red blood cells, is responsible for the red colouring of the blood.8. The average adult body contains of bloodand an has about 1 litre.5-6 litresinfant
6 The Circulatory System The function of a circulatory system is to carry blood or hemolymph into close contact with every cell in the body.The most sophisticated circulatory systems consist of:one or more pumps called heartsarteries (tough, thick-walled tubes) that carry blood away from the heart under high pressure;small vessels called capillaries whose walls are just one cell thick, allows the exchange of gases and other molecules with tissues in networks called capillary beds; andvessels called veins that return blood to the heart under low pressure
7 Functions of the Circulatory System Transport oxygen to cellsTransport nutrients from the digestive system to body cellsTransport hormones to body cellsTransport waste from body cells to excretory organsDistribute body heat
8 How Are Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transported in Blood? Blood : connective tissue that consists of cells in a watery extracellular matrix called plasmaRemainder of the blood is made up of formed elements: platelets, red blood cells, and several types of white blood cells:Platelets : Cell fragments that minimize blood loss from ruptured blood vessels by releasing material that assists in the formation of clotsWhite blood cells: which are part of the immune system fight infections
9 RBCs Red blood cells (RBCs): transport oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the bodycritical role in transporting carbon dioxide from tissues to lungsIn humans, red blood cells make up 99.9% of the formed elements.contain an oxygen-carrying molecule called hemoglobin
11 How Does the Heart Work?In animals with closed circulatory systems, the heart contains at least two chambers.the atrium receives blood returning from circulationthe ventricle generates force to propel the blood through the system.Atria are separated from ventricles by atrioventricular valves.The number of distinct heart chambers has increased as vertebrates diversified.
12 How Does the Heart Work?Vertebrates evolved two separate pumping circuits:The pulmonary circulation is a lower-pressure circuit to the lungs.The systemic circulation is a higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body.
13 Right Left pulmonary vein lungs pulmonary artery head & arms aorta main veinRightLeftliverdigestive systemkidneyslegs
14 Our circulatory system is a double circulatory system. This means it has two parts parts.LungsBody cellsthe right side of the systemdeals with deoxygenated blood.the left side of the systemdeals with oxygenated blood.
15 Components of the Human Circulatory System The Heart Blood Vessels Blood Lymphatic Vessels Lymph
16 now lets look inside the heart This is a vein. It brings blood from the body, except the lungs.These are arteries. They carry blood away from the heart.2 atriaCoronary arteries, the hearts own blood supply2 ventriclesThe heart has four chambersnow lets look inside the heart
17 The Path of Blood The heart pumps blood to the lungs The blood gets oxygen in the lungsThe blood returns to the heartThe heart pumps the oxygenated blood to the cells in the bodyThe blood delivers oxygen to the body cellsThe deoxygenated blood travels back to the heart
18 The Heart Artery to Lungs Artery to Head and Body Vein from Head and BodyVein from LungsRight AtriumLeft AtriumvalvevalveLeft VentricleRight Ventricle
19 How does the Heart work? blood from the lungs blood from the body STEP ONEblood from the bodyblood from the lungsThe heart beat begins when the heart muscles relax and blood flows into the atria.
20 How does the Heart work? the valves open to allow blood STEP TWOThe atria then contract andthe valves open to allow bloodinto the ventricles.
21 The cycle then repeats itself. How does the Heart work?STEP THREEThe valves close to stop bloodflowing backwards.The ventricles contract forcingthe blood to leave the heart.At the same time, the atria arerelaxing and once again filling with blood.The cycle then repeats itself.
31 Can you see the 4 valves? out ininCan you see the 4 valves?Atrium and ventricle muscles force the blood through and out of the heart
32 blood from the heart gets around the body through blood vessels There are 3 types of blood vesselsa. ARTERYb VEINc. CAPILLARY
33 The ARTERY Arteries carry blood away from the heart. the elastic fibres allow the artery to stretch under pressurethick muscle and elastic fibresthe thick muscle can contract to push the blood along.
34 Veins carry blood towards the heart. The VEINVeins carry blood towards the heart.veins have valves which act to stop the blood from going in the wrong direction.body muscles surround the veins so that when they contract to move the body, they also squeeze the veins and push the blood along the vessel.thin muscle and elastic fibres
35 The CAPILLARYCapillaries link Arteries with Veinsthey exchange materials between the blood and other body cells.The exchange of materials between the blood and the body can only occur through capillaries.the wall of a capillaryis only one cell thick
36 The CAPILLARY A collection of capillaries is known as a capillary bed. arteryveincapillariesbody cell
37 what’s in BLOOD digested food red blood cells white blood cells oxygen waste (urea)plateletscarbon dioxidehormonesplasma
38 The Bloodwhite blood cellred blood cellplasmaplatelets
39 Red Blood Cellscontain haemoglobin, a molecule specially designed to hold oxygen and carry it to cells that need it.a biconcave disc that is round and flat without a nucleuscan change shape to an amazing extent, without breaking, as it squeezes single file through the capillaries.
40 White Blood Cellsthere are many different types and all contain a big nucleus.the two main ones are the lymphocytes and the macrophages.macrophages ‘eat’ and digest micro-organisms .some lymphocytes fight disease by making antibodies to destroy invaders by dissolving them.other lymphocytes make antitoxins to break down poisons.
41 Platelets Platelets are bits of cell broken off larger cells. Platelets produce tiny fibrinogen fibres to form a net. This net traps other blood cells to form a blood clot.
42 Plasma It also contains useful things like; carbon dioxide glucose amino acidsproteinsmineralsvitaminshormoneswaste materialslike urea.A straw-coloured liquid that carries the cells and the platelets which help blood clot.
43 Types of Blood Vessels Capillaries: smallest vessels the site where gases, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the blood and other tissuesThe smallest veins are venules;carry blood back to the heart after it passes through the capillariesveins have much thinner walls and much larger interior diameters than arteries
47 Visceral pericardiumOuter protective layer composed of a serous membraneIncludes blood capillaries, lymph capillaries, and nerve fibers.MyocardiumRelatively thick.Consists largely of cardiac muscle tissue responsible for forcing blood out of the heart chambers.Muscle fibers are arranged in planes, separated by connective tissues that are richly supplied with blood capillaries, and nerve fibers.
48 EndocardiumConsists of epithelial and connective tissue that contains many elastic and collagenous fibers.Connective tissue also contains blood vessels and some specialized cardiac muscle fibers called Purkinje fibers.Lines all of the heart chambers and covers heart valves.
49 The Human HeartThe human circulatory system returns oxygen-depleted blood from the body to the right atrium of the heart through two large veinsthe inferior and superior venae cavae.When the right atrium contracts:deoxygenated blood is sent to the right ventricleit contracts and sends blood out to the lungs via the pulmonary arteryOne-way valves ensure that blood follows only this path. After blood has circulated through the capillary beds in the lung’s alveoli:it becomes oxygenatedreturns to the heart through the pulmonary veins
50 The Human Heart The oxygenated blood enters the left atrium: it contracts and pushes the blood into the left ventricleThe contraction of the left ventricle sends oxygenated blood at high pressure out the aorta and into:the arteriescapillariesveinsforms the systemic circulation
55 The Cardiac CycleThe contraction phase of the atria and the ventricles:called systoleis coordinated with their relaxation phasecalled diastoleA cardiac cycle:consists of one complete systole and one complete diastole
56 systolic blood pressure : blood pressure measured in the systemic arterial circulation at the peak of ventricular ejection into the aortadiastolic blood pressure:blood pressure measured just prior to ventricular ejection
60 Circulatory System -Gross and Cool Facts! The body of an adult contains over 60,000 miles of blood vessels!An adult's heart pumps nearly 4000 gallons of blood each day!Your heart beats some 30 million times a year!The average three-year-old has two pints of blood in their body; the average adult at least five times more!A "heartbeat" is really the sound of the valves in the heart closing as they push blood through its chambers.
61 ReferencesAP Biology TextbookAddison and Wesley Biology 11Vijay Aswathy and S Morris