Presentation on theme: "Anatomy/Physiology Definition of terms: Anterior (cranial)toward the head Posterior (caudal)toward the tail Cranialhead region Caudalpertaining to the."— Presentation transcript:
Anatomy/Physiology Definition of terms: Anterior (cranial)toward the head Posterior (caudal)toward the tail Cranialhead region Caudalpertaining to the tail region Dorsaltoward the back of the animal Ventral toward the belly of the animal Medialtoward the median line Distalaway from the center or origin Proximaltoward the center or origin
Anatomy/physiology External Anatomy of fish –The body: divided into head, trunk, and tail. –The scales: Head is covered by epidermis and some scales.
Anatomy/physiology External Anatomy of fish –Lateral line: is present along middle side of body. –Head: Nares: located on dorsal side of the anterior end of head. –Each naris is divided into two portions which permits water to circulate through the olfactory sac.
Anatomy/physiology External Anatomy of fish –Head: Eyes: located in lateral position at anterior end of head. Ears: Operculum: Located at the posterior and lateral positions of the head. Gill arch: Beneath the operculum are located four pair of gill arches.
Anatomy/physiology External Anatomy of fish –Head: Gill arch: –Each arch bears a gill on its outer surface. –Each gill consists of two rows of filaments. –Each filament consists of numerous lamellae. –Inner margin of arch bears a single row of tooth-like projections the gill rakers.
Anatomy/physiology Sensory perception of the fish: –Sight: Sight is the predominant sense of salmon. –Hearing: Lateral line perceives sounds of low wave length. Ear perceived sounds of higher wave length. –Equilibrium: Organs of equilibrium are the lateral line and the ear.
Anatomy/physiology Sensory perception of the fish: –Touch: – Smell: Long range perception of chemicals Preceptors of smell through olfactory sac –Taste: Taste is the perception of chemicals upon contact. Taste buds: Taste buds located on tongue and head.
Anatomy/physiology Sensory perception of the fish: –Kinesthetic perception: –Temperature: Function of lateral line
Anatomy/physiology Functions of various sense organs: –Eye: Sight –Ear: Equilibrium and hearing –Nares: Smell –Lateral line: Hearing, equilibrium, touch, perception, and temperature
Anatomy/physiology Internal Anatomy –Skeletal system: The function of the skeletal system is one of support. –Skeletal tissues: –Axial skeleton: Head, trunk, and tail regions. –Head: –Trunk skeleton: modified portion of the vertebral column. –Tail skeleton: remainder of the vertebral column
Anatomy/physiology Supporting tissues: –Connective tissue: ligaments, tendons, septa, fascia, and mesenteries. Ligaments: tough bands of tissue between bones. Tendons: thick narrow bands by which muscles are attached to the skeleton. Septa: are heavy tissues which separate various portions of the body. Fascia: are the thin sheets of connective tissue which surround muscles. Mesenteries: are delicate tissues which support the organs of the body cavity.
Anatomy/physiology Muscular system: –Three types of muscle tissue: smooth, striated, and cardiac. –Smooth and cardiac: muscles are involuntary. –Striated muscle is voluntary. –Smooth or involuntary muscles: Found in various organs – –Cardiac muscle: is striated but involuntary. –Primary function of muscles is motion and locomotion.
Anatomy/physiology Digestive system: –Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, pyloric cecae, liver and pancreas. –Mouth: grasping organ; teeth function to retain prey. –Pharynx: leads to the esophagus: –Esophagus: muscular tube leading from the pharynx to the stomach.
Anatomy/physiology Digestive system: –Stomach: consists of two parts: Cardiac: Pyloric: –At end of pyloric section: heavy muscle »Pyloric sphincter: »
Anatomy/physiology Digestive system: –Intestine: duodenum, and small and large intestines. –Duodenum: short portion of the intestine »pyloric caeca are attached and which receives the bile duct and the pancreatic duct » –Small intestine: predominant portion of intestinal tract. –Large intestine: extremely short and located just anterior to the anus.
Anatomy/physiology Digestive glands in the salmon and trout include the gastric and intestinal glands, the liver, and the pancreas. –Gastric glands: –Intestinal glands: –Liver: a bilobed organ located in the anterior and left lateral portion of the body cavity Gall bladder: a thin-walled sac embedded in the liver, Bile duct:
Anatomy/physiology Pancreas: diffuse gland located on the pyloric caeca –Pancreatic duct: discharge enzymes into the intestine Pancreatic juices contain 3 enzymes that act on proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
Anatomy/physiology Respiratory system: –Gills: Function to exchange gases Oxygen absorbed through gills into blood Gas exchange: –Flow from dense to less dense –Air bladder: doesn’t function as respiratory organ in salmonids Fry and fingerling stages: air bladder connected by duct to the esophagus (surface feeding?)
Anatomy/physiology Circulatory system: Blood and lymph systems –Blood: Fluid tissue – liquid plasma and cellular components Plasma: 80% water –Proteins and carbohydrates –Waste materials (urea and uric acid) –Mineral salts –Enzyme secretions from glands –Antibodies
Anatomy/physiology Blood cells –Red cells (erythrocytes) Flattened, nucleated cells with hemoglobin –White cells (leukocytes) –Thrombocytes: Present in blood and aid in formation of blood clots Blood vessels: Closed system which blood circulates – heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries –Heart: Consists of 2 chambers - auricle(atrium) and ventricle
Anatomy/physiology Lymph system: consists of plasma and leukocytes –Starts in the intercellular spaces and eventually empty into veins – –Spleen is associated with lymphatic system –GALT and MALT Blood producing organs: – Functions is same as bone marrow in mammals –Spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus:
Anatomy/physiology Primary functions of major organs: Pancreas: Spleen: produces leukocytes, serves as a storage space for RBCs, and destroys worn out red blood cells Kidney: divided into 2 parts –Anterior: produces red and white blood cells –Posterior: Swim bladder: hydrostatic organ
Anatomy/physiology Heart: serves to move blood through circulatory system – consists of atrium, ventricle, and bulbous arteriosis (smoothes out pressure to steady flow) Liver: –Detoxification, digestion, excretion, and hematopoiesis Digestion: secretion of bile salts Excretion: destruction of worn out RBCs, conversion of hemoglobin into bile salts and ammonium salts into urea The liver also serves for storage of glycogen (animal starch)
Anatomy/physiology Gastro-intestinal tract: –Cardiac and pyloric stomach: –Pyloric caeca: –Small intestine: digestion and absorption of food Enzymes secreted by glands – break down proteins and carbohydrates Carbs. and proteins absorbed directly in to bloodstream –Large intestine: serves as storage space for accumulation of waste before excretion