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Newton’s Laws of Motion. Motion and Speed Vocabulary Words  Motion  Position  Reference point  Distance  Displacement  Speed  Average speed 

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Presentation on theme: "Newton’s Laws of Motion. Motion and Speed Vocabulary Words  Motion  Position  Reference point  Distance  Displacement  Speed  Average speed "— Presentation transcript:

1 Newton’s Laws of Motion

2 Motion and Speed

3 Vocabulary Words  Motion  Position  Reference point  Distance  Displacement  Speed  Average speed  Velocity * Copy down words; define them for homework!

4 Activities  NJ Ask Coach Lesson 6  P48-52  Discussion question and #1-4

5 Motion  The process of changing from one position to another

6 Speed  How fast an object changes position  Speed= Distance/Time

7 Calculating Speed  Julie ran from her house on Ridge Road to Lincoln School; which is 2 miles away. It took her 20 minutes to get there; what was her speed in miles per minute?  2 miles/20minutes=0.1m/ min

8 Velocity  Describes an object’s speed AND its direction

9 Forces and Motion

10 Vocabulary  Force  gravity  newton  net force  Balanced forces  Unbalanced forces  Acceleration  Friction  Air resistance  Mass  Momentum

11 Activities  NJ Ask Coach Lesson 7  P. 52-54  Discussion question and #1-4

12 Forces  A force is a push or a pull  Measured in newtons

13 Gravity  The force that exists between two objects that have mass, attracting them together

14 What is Friction?  Static  Sliding  Rolling  Fluid  A fluid is any matter in which the molecules can move freely i.e. air, water, etc.

15 Four Types of Friction  The force that occurs when two objects rub together

16 Gravity  Force that exists between any two objects that have mass

17 Gravitational Relationships

18 Free Fall  Free fall- the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity  In free fall, the force of gravity is an unbalanced force, which causes an object to accelerate

19 Free Fall  all objects in free fall accelerate at the same rate regardless of their masses!

20 Weight  Mass- the amount of matter in an object  Weight- measure of the force of gravity acting on an object  Weight=mass x acceleration  Gravity on Earth is 9.8m/sec 2

21 Calculating Weight Example:  Calculate the mass of an object weighing 10kg: 10kg x 9.8m/s 2

22 Momentum  A property that a moving object has because of its mass and velocity  Momentum = Mass x Velocity

23 Calculating Momentum  What is the momentum of a 5kg bowling ball rolling down a lane at a velocity of 7m/s? =5kg x 7 m/s =35kg x m/s

24 Law of Conservation of Momentum  The total amount of momentum in a group of interacting objects does not change unless outside forces act on the objects

25 Newton’s Laws of Motion Isaac Newton not only studied Physics, but was the inventor of Calculus and one of History’s most famous scientists

26 Newton’s 1 st Law of Motion  An object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will continue to move in the same direction and the same speed unless acted upon by a force. “

27 1 st Law Example What are some examples of forces that might stop the object from moving? To make it move?

28 Inertia  The tendency of a still or moving object to resist changes in motion

29 Newton’s Second Law of Motion  An object acted on by a net force will accelerate in the direction of the force. The object’s acceleration equals the net force divided by the mass.  Acceleration= Force/mass  Force= mass x acceleration

30 2 nd Law Example  A grocery cart that weighs 30 kg with a net force of 60N acting on it will accelerate at 2 m/s 2 because … acceleration = force/mass 60N/30kg= 2 m/s 2

31 Newton’s Third Law of Motion  For every action force exerted on an object, the object will exert an equal and opposite reaction.

32 3 rd Law Example  When you are swimming and you pull your arms through the water in one direction, your body moves in the opposite direction

33 Energy Energy, Work, Power and Heat

34 Vocabulary  Work  Joule  Energy  Kinetic energy  Potential energy  Power

35 Activities  NJ Ask Coach Lesson 8  P.55-59  Discussion question and #1-4

36 Work  Work- result of a force moving an object over a distance  The unit of measurement for work is a joule  Work= Force x Distance

37 Potential vs. Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy

38 Power  Power is the amount of work done in a period of time  Power= Work/Time  Remember: work is measured in joules and time is measured in seconds

39 Energy  Energy- the ability to do work or cause change  Kinetic energy- the energy an object has because it is moving  Potential energy- stored energy

40 Thermal Energy  Thermal energy, or heat, is the total energy of the movement of molecules in a substance

41 Heat Transfer  There are three ways heat can be transferred:  Convection  Conduction  Radiation  Radiation is the transfer of energy via electromagnetic waves

42 Conduction  Conduction is a situation where the heat source and heat sink are connected by matter.

43 Temperature vs. Heat Temperature  Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy level of a substance Heat  Heat is the total energy associated with the motion of molecules

44 Measuring Temperature  Temperatur e can be measured in…  Fahrenheit  Celsius  Kelvin

45 Fahrenheit  Fahrenheit is the classic English system of measuring temperatures.  Water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit  Water boils at 212 degrees

46 Celsius  Celsius is the modern system of measuring temperature.  The freezing point of water is 0 degrees Celsius  the boiling point is 100 degrees Celsius

47 Formula  Celsius=(Fahrenheit Temperature -32)*5/9

48 Thermal Expansion  Thermal expansion is when gases expand as the temperature increases  Think about it…  Have you ever been hot and sticky and felt that your clothes seemed tighter or that your hand were swelling?  This is an example of thermal expansion

49 Contraction  The opposite of expansion is contraction  A substance will contract when heat is removed  If you remove enough heat from a gas it will become a liquid  Liquids can turn into solids with further cooling

50 The End!!

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