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Published byLenard Phillips Modified over 6 years ago

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Electrical principles

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Session 1 a.c circuits Objectives: To know how alternating current is produced To understand what average and RMS values are, in relation to A.C and D.C supplies Outcome 4 Electrical principles

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Alternating current or a.c. is the supply most common in the UK; this is due to a large number of economic and electrical factors. The coil is free to rotate within the magnetic field, as the coil turns current is induced in the coil. This is tapped off at the slip rings. The current in the coil varies depending on how much is being cut. An alternating current is produced when a coil is placed within a magnetic field and allowed to rotate.

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The coil starts at a position where no magnetic flux is being cut. The magnetic flux is shown by the lines between the magnets. At this point if we were drawing a sinusoidal wave or sine wave this would be the 0 on the wave form diagram.

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1.It moves from zero up to a maximum in one direction. 2.It then moves from the maximum, back through zero 3.Then on to a maximum in the opposite direction, 4.Then to zero. 1.It moves from zero up to a maximum in one direction. 2.It then moves from the maximum, back through zero 3.Then on to a maximum in the opposite direction, 4.Then to zero. A standard sine wave. When a sine wave has completed one of these sequences, it is then ready to begin another the same. Each complete wave is called a ‘cycle’ or ‘period’. The quantity of cycles in one second is called the ‘frequency’.

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Frequency The quantity of cycles in one second is called the frequency The formula for frequency is; Time is usually measured in seconds or milliseconds A simple formula is attached to this Frequency in the UK is 50Hz.

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The maximum or peak value cannot be the total useful current, power or voltage, as so much of the wave is less than the maximum. This is the average value. This cannot be done over both positive and negative half cycles, as this would produce an average value of zero. So to look at the average value of current or voltage we must only look at one of the half-cycles.

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In this instance, the average value is when a series of readings are taken at different points on the half-cycle and then averaged. Points at which readings would be taken. In the above example, the values are taken every 10 degrees. You could also take the values every 1 degree or even 30 degrees.

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The average value is found from this formula; Value (V AV ) = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + V 4 +………… V n It does not matter what the size of the current or voltage is, the average value is always 0.637 times the maximum value available. n

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Now try and find the average of the previous example Average value (V AV ) = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + V 4 + V 5 + V 6 6 373.2 divide by 6 = 62.2v. This is the average (Vav) of 100v max (Vmax)

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In D.C circuits, the powered delivered to a resistor is given by the product of voltage across the element and the current through the element. However, this is only true of instantaneous power to a resistor in an A.C circuit. An easy way to measure power is the RMS method.

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R.M.S stands for, root mean square. This is the effective value of a waveform. The ‘Root Mean Square’ of an alternating current is the value of equivalent direct current that would produce the same amount of heat in a fixed resistive load.

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In the U.K, the single phase voltage is 230v. This is the RMS voltage. Multifunction meters (mft) measure RMS values.

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The RMS value is found using this formula; Mathematically the RMS voltage (V RMS ) of a sinusoidal waveform is determined by multiplying the peak voltage(Vmax) value by 0.7071

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Angle*Voltage (V)Voltage (V 2 ) 0 degrees0 30 degrees50.00 60 degrees86.60 90 degrees100 120 degrees86.60 150 degrees50.00 180 degrees0 0 2500 7499.56 10000 7499.56 2500 0 Using a table will help you simplify the RMS formula For this example the total squared figure is 29999.12

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So now we have the squared total the formula Becomes a little easier to work out. V RMS = 29999.12 6 = 4999.85 = 70.71v

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So when we say the main supply to a domestic property is 230V RMS, the maximum value would be 325.3V and the average value would be 207.2V.

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In an A.C circuit the average value is 63.7% of the max value In an A.C circuit the RMS value is 70.71% of the max value

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AC voltage is produced when a coil rotates through a magnetic field. Frequency is the number of cycles that occur every second The maximum value of a waveform is Vpeak or Vmax The average value of a waveform = 0.637 The RMS value of a waveform = 0.7071 The A.C RMS value is the same as the D.C value

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You now have 5 minutes to complete the exercises I have given you.

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