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**Motion, Speed, and Velocity**

Physics Motion, Speed, and Velocity

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**SC Standards Covered PS-5.1 PS – 5.2 PS – 5.6**

Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object PS – 5.2 Use the formula v=d/t to solve problems related to average speed or velocity PS – 5.6 Represent linear motion of objects on distance – time graphs

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**Motion When an object changes its position, motion has occurred.**

Distance- How far an object has moved. Displacement- How far an object has moved in relation to its starting point. Consider direction Example: Two runners travel along the same straight path in a straight line for 500 meters. At the end of the run their distances are the same but their displacements are different. How can this be so?

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**Speed- Distance an object travels per unit of time**

Relationships between speed, distance, and time: Speed = Distance/ Time = d/ t Constant Speed- speed does not change over time Average Speed- speed of motion when speed is changing Avg Speed = Total Distance/ Total Time Instantaneous Speed- speed at any given moment in time (speedometer)

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Speed The units for speed: meters/second (m/sec) kilometers/hour (km/hr) Speed that does not change is constant speed

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**Graphing Motion Graph distance on the y-axis and time on the x-axis**

Slope = rise = distance = speed run time

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Distance - Time Graph If something is not moving, a horizontal line is drawn. If something starts out slow and then speeds up, its change in speed can look like this.

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**Learning Checkpoint This graph shows several stages of motion:**

Stage 1: 100 m in 10 s Stage 2: 50 m in 10 s Stage 3: 150 m in 20 s Calculate the speed as indicated by each of the colors. Calculate the average speed. What is the total distance? What is the displacement?

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**Solution Stage 1: S= d/ t 100 m/ 10 s= 10 m/s Stage 2: S= d/t**

Ave Speed= Tot d/ Tot t 300 m/ 40 s= 7.5 m/s Distance = 300 meters Displacement = 0 meters

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**Velocity The speed and direction of an object’s motion.**

88 km / hr southwest

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Acceleration The change in velocity Acceleration is measured in m/sec/sec or m/sec2 Formula is: (final velocity - original velocity)/time

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**Deceleration vs. Acceleration**

A decrease in velocity is deceleration or negative acceleration A distance-time graph for acceleration is always a curve

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**Centripetal Acceleration**

Acceleration directed toward the center of circular path

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Frames of Reference The object or point from which movement is determined Movement is relative to an object that appears stationary Earth is the most common frame of reference

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