Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Notes “Classical Europe” I. Ancient Greece “Birthplace of Democracy” A.Athens was the home of the world’s first democratic constitution. B.3."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 5 Notes “Classical Europe” I. Ancient Greece “Birthplace of Democracy” A.Athens was the home of the world’s first democratic constitution. B.3 great philosophers were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. C.Greek, city-states like Athens and Sparta often fought against each other (Peloponnesian War). D.300 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered all of Greece. II. The Rise of Rome A.Rome was settled sometime in 1000 B.C. as a city-state that dominated the Italian Peninsula. B.Rome started as a monarchy, but changed to Republic. (choose) C.Senators killed Julius Caesar who tried to become the 1 st emperor.
III. From Republic to Empire A.Under an empire, Senators lost power to emperors of Rome. Caesar Augustus was the 1st Roman Emperor. B.The Roman Empire declined in the A.D. 300s because of changes in the government, plagues, and foreign invaders. Chapter 5 Notes “Medieval Europe” I. The Rise of Christianity A.In the Middle Ages, Christianity in the form of the Catholic Church became a political power in Western Europe. B.Popes became the leaders of the Church. C.In Eastern Europe, Christianity was known as Eastern Orthodox which was led by emperors. (Byzantine Empire) D.A.D. 1000s, the Church sponsored holy wars known as Crusades.
II. The Holy Roman Empire A. The Germans combined their common law with Roman Law. B. An important German kingdom known as the Franks was led by King Charlemagne. C. Charlemagne was crowned the head of the Holy Roman Empire. III. Medieval Society A.Most people were farmers who lived under feudalism, lords who gave land to a noble or knight to work, govern, and defend. B.The feudal estate became the economic unit known as a manor. C.Towns served as the center of trade and manufacturing. D.Manufacturing came under the control of guilds, who trained young workers, known as apprentices.
MIDDLE AGES FEUDALISMCITY LIFE LORD-SERVED AS- VASSALS-GUILDS- TENANTS-APPRENTICIES- SERFS-CHARTERS-
MIDDLE AGES FEUDALISM -CITY LIFE LORD-SERVED AS- VASSALS-GUILDS- TENANTS-APPRENTICIES- SERFS-CHARTERS- Received land in exchange for service to the king. Received land from the lords in return for military service. Nobles/ Knights Paid rent for their land to work freely. Peasant laborers, who were not very free. Centers of trade and manufacturing Medieval workers organization (union) Young worker who learned a trade/skill from a master teacher Written agreement guaranteeing privileges/freedoms Social & political system based on farming
Chapter 5 Notes: The Beginning of Modern Times I. The Renaissance A.The Renaissance sparked an interest in education, art, and science in the 1350’s throughout Europe. B.Writers began to use the language that they spoke every day instead of Latin or French. C. The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1450. II.The Protestant Reformation A.People who disagreed with the corrupt practices of the Catholic Church became known as Protestants. B.Two Protestant leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin.
III. The Age of Exploration A.Bartholomeau Dias, Vasco da Gama, and Christopher Columbus were important explorers of this time. B.The Dutch, English, and French joined the Spanish and Portuguese to explore and settle with the Americas, Asia, and Africa. IV. Revolution - a great and often violent change. A.In the 1770’s, American colonies revolted against the British and became a model for many revolutions. B.The French Revolution stimulated other peoples to demand personal and political freedoms.