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Is Perceived Self-Efficacy a Universal Construct? Psychometric Findings from 22 Cultures Ralf Schwarzer & Urte Scholz Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

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Presentation on theme: "Is Perceived Self-Efficacy a Universal Construct? Psychometric Findings from 22 Cultures Ralf Schwarzer & Urte Scholz Freie Universität Berlin, Germany."— Presentation transcript:

1 Is Perceived Self-Efficacy a Universal Construct? Psychometric Findings from 22 Cultures Ralf Schwarzer & Urte Scholz Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

2 Perceived Self-Efficacy is the belief that one can perform a novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning

3 Perceived Self-Efficacy FACILITATES: GOAL SETTING EFFORT INVESTMENT PERSISTANCE IN FACE OF BARRIERS RECOVERY FROM SETBACKS

4 General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale Ralf Schwarzer & Matthias Jerusalem (1995) Examples: I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough. Thanks to my resourcefulness, I know how to handle unforeseen situations. If I am in trouble, I can usually think of a solution. I am confident that I could deal efficiently with unexpected events.

5 The General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale Source of the English Version: Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self- Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A users portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp ). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON. The full 10-item scale can be copied from the web

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7 Frequency Distribution broken down by Nation

8 Age Distribution

9 Mean Age per Nation (N = 13,461)

10 Distribution of Self-Efficacy Sum Scores for the Total Sample (N= 17,553)

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12 Scale Reliabilities (Cronbachs ) for all Nations

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14 Unidimensionality of the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Construct GSE SE5SE4SE6 SE7 SE2SE1SE3SE9SE8SE

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16 Mean Sum Scores Broken Down by Nation

17 Mean Sum Scores Broken Down by Nations and Gender

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19 Correlations Between Self-Efficacy And Other Constructs Self-Efficacy Sum Score of German Teachers (N = 302) Proactive Coping.55 Self-Regulation.58 Procrastination -.56 Emotional Exhaustion -.47 Depersonalisation -.44 Lack of Accomplishment -.75

20 Correlations Between Self-Efficacy And Other Constructs Expected Social Support Self-Efficacy Sum Score of Costa Ricans Women (N = 393) Men (N = 258) Anxiety Depression Optimism.60.52

21 The Self-Efficacy Scale Is Reliable And Unidimensional Across Cultures.

22 References Schwarzer, R. (Ed.) (1992). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. Schwarzer, R. & Born, A. (1997). Optimistic self-beliefs: Assessment of general perceived self-efficacy in thirteen cultures. World Psychology, 3, Schwarzer, R., Bäßler, J., Kwiatek, P., Schröder, K., & Zhang, J. X. (1997). The assessment of optimistic self-beliefs: Comparison of the German, Spanish, and Chinese versions of the General Self-Efficacy scale. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, Schwarzer, R., Born, A., Iwawaki, S., Lee, Y.-M., Saito, E., & Yue, X. (1997). The assessment of optimistic self-beliefs: Comparison of the Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese and Korean versions of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 40, Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A users portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp ). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON. Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (Eds.) (1999). Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schülermerkmalen. Dokumentation der psychometrischen Verfahren im Rahmen der Wissenschaftlichen Begleitung des Modellversuchs Selbstwirksame Schulen [Scales for the assessment of teacher and student characteristics.] Berlin, Germany: Freie Universität Berlin. Schwarzer, R., Mueller, J., & Greenglass, E. (1999). Assessment of perceived general self-efficacy on the Internet: Data collection in cyberspace. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 12, Schwarzer, R., Schmitz, G. S. & Tang, C. (2000). Teacher burnout in Hong Kong and Germany: A cross- cultural validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 13, Zhang, J. X. & Schwarzer, R. (1995). Measuring optimistic self-beliefs: A Chinese adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Psychologia, 38,

23 Source of this Presentation: Scholz, U., Gutiérrez-Doña, B., Sud, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Is general self-efficacy a universal construct? Psychometric findings from 25 countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18, No. 3,


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