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Chapter 7 The Rise of Europe

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1 Chapter 7 The Rise of Europe
Section 1: The Early Middle Ages Geography of Western Europe

2 Western Europe was not dominated by Rome, but by Germanic peoples
Europe is very small for a continent (second smallest of the seven continents) Despite Europe's size, it was rich in natural resources Europe had rich soil, rivers for trade and mountain streams to turn water wheels The Germanic Kingdoms Germanic people were very different from Romans

3 Germanic people lived in small kingdoms, the strongest of which was the Franks
Clovis, king of the Franks, embraced Christianity and allied himself with the Church in Rome Around the same time Islam began to emerge Islam spread, but Christians were able to keep it out of most western Europe Despite this there was tension between Muslims and Christians The Age of Charlemagne Emperor Charlemagne was able to unite Western Europe

4 He was able to unite much of the old Roman Empire
Because of this the pope named him King of the Romans This angered the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in Constantinople As emperor, Charlemagne helped spread Christianity throughout the empire In addition to religion, Charlemagne stressed the importance of learning Charlemagne established schools with a set curriculum based on Latin learning

5 After Charlemagne After his death, Charlemagne's empire was split into three regions Charlemagne was able to establish a lasting legacy before he died however After his death his empire was invaded by Muslims, Magyars and Vikings Vocab pg 214, # 3-6 pg 218 Section 2: Feudalism and the Manor Economy Feudalism arose out of the need for protection from invaders Feudalism involves lords, vassals and feudal contracts

6 The Feudal system was very structured and very complex
The World of Nobles Warfare between nobles was so common that they trained most of their life for war Most noble boys trained from a young age to be knights Training for knighthood was very strict and disciplined When fighting ceased, knights competed in tournaments for entertainment Due to the constant warfare, powerful noibles fortified their homes

7 These fortified homes became castles, a symbol of Feudal society
Castles were supplied to withstand long attacks Noblewomen had a very important role in feudal society Some women even had political rights Despite this women had very few land rights Under the Knight code of chivalry, women were put on a pedestal however Peasants and Manor Life Manor=Lords estate Majority of population on a manor were peasants

8 Peasants worked the manor lands in return for protection
They were bound to the manor, but were guaranteed food, housing and land Manors were mostly self-sufficient Peasant life was harsh, with men, women and children working long hours They slept in the same one room hut with the farm animals they raised The average life span of a peasant was no longer than 35 Vocab pg 219, #3-5 pg 224

9 Section 3: The Medieval Church
The Church’s greatest achievement was Christianizing Western Europe During this time the Parish Priest was the only link between the people and the Church Duties of the priests were very similar to the priests of today Churches served as places of worship and socialization Villagers took great pride in their churches and decorated them The church required tithing of it’s parishioners

10 The church viewed women as equal to men, but needing the protection of men
Monks and Nuns The monk Benedict made rules to regulate monastic life They took vows and did manual labor They also looked after the sick and elderly They also ran schools for children Educated monks and nuns stressed the importance of learning Like today, women could not become priests Some nuns had power in the church, but in the later middle ages they were suppressed

11 The Power of the Church Grows
The Church was not only the highest spiritual authority, but the most powerful secular power The Pope claimed papal supremacy over secular rulers Church officials were educated so usually held high government positions The church developed canon law and it’s own system of courts Church punishments included excommunication and interdict The church was instrumental in trying to bring peace between feudal lords

12 Reform Movements There was much corruption in the medieval church Reformers attempted to reform the church The marriage of priests and the selling of Church offices was forbidden Some priests joined preaching orders to escape church corruption Jews in Europe Despite a strong Christian church, Jews flourished in Europe Christian persecution of Jews increased in the 1100’s

13 Jews were blamed for killing Jesus and they were forbidden to own land and work most jobs
Anti-Semitism was on the rise, and Jews were blamed for most societal problems Because of this, many Jews migrated to Eastern Europe Vocab pg 225, #3-5 pg 230 Section 4: Economic Expansion and Change By 1100 an Agricultural revolution had aided Europe's economic recovery New technologies such as iron tools and horse drawn plows made farming more productive

14 The windmill also increased the amount of grain produced
Peasants adopted the three field system which produced more fertile land and food variety This caused the population to grow and be healthier Trade Revives A growing population caused a demand for more goods New trade routes brought goods from the Middle East and Asia So many goods were coming to Europe that they held annual trade fairs

15 Trade fairs brought so many people that the first medieval cities began to develop
They ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 citizens Cities were granted a charter which laid out the rights of the people Two of the most important rights were: -right of people to choose their own leaders -right of runaway serfs who were free for a year and a day were granted freedom

16 A Commercial Revolution
Revived trade led to: -borrowing money to produce more goods -growth of banking houses New business practices such as partnerships emerged to minimize risk A bill of exchange was another important way to reduce risk in business These business changes began to change medieval society One of the most important changes was that of peasant to tenant farmer, and the rise of a middle class

17 Many Jews became money lenders during this time because Christians were forbid to charge interest
Role of Guilds Merchants and artisans formed associations know as guilds Merchant guilds were the first, and they became very powerful Artisans formed their own craft guilds Guilds were similar to unions of today, protecting the economic interest of the worker Guilds also provided support for widows and orphans of guild members

18 Becoming a guild member was not and easy process:
-apprentice (age of 7-8) -journeymen (most remained here) -guild master Women were permitted to join guilds and even become guild masters Town and City Life Cities were crowded rows of houses and streets They had a cathedral and a guild hall There was no garbage removal or sewer system Vocab pg 231, 3-6 pg 236

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