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**Motion in One Dimension**

Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension

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Kinematics To describe motion while ignoring the agents that caused the motion For now, we will consider motion in one dimension - along a straight line -, and use the particle model. A particle is a point-like object, has mass but infinitesimal size

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**Position Defined in terms of a frame of reference**

The reference frame must has an origin. The object’s position is its location with respect to the origin of the frame of reference.

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Position-Time Graph The position-time graph shows the motion of the particle (car) The smooth curve is a guess as to what happened between the data points

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Displacement Defined as the change in position during some time interval Dt Represented as x Xi is the initial position and Xf is the final position. Different than distance – the length of a path followed by a particle

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Average Velocity The average velocity is rate at which the displacement occurs The dimensions are length / time [L/T] The slope of the line connecting the initial and final points in the position – time graph

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**Average Velocity, cont Gives no details about the motion**

Gives the result of the motion It can be positive or negative It depends on the sign of the displacement It can be interpreted graphically It will be the slope of the position-time graph

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**Displacement from a Velocity - Time Graph**

The displacement of a particle during the time interval ti to tf is equal to the area under the curve between the initial and final points on a velocity-time curve

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**Instantaneous Velocity**

The limit of the average velocity as the time interval becomes infinitesimally short, or as the time interval approaches zero The instantaneous velocity indicates what is happening at every point of time

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**Instantaneous Velocity, graph**

The instantaneous velocity is the slope of the line tangent to the x vs. t curve This would be the green line The blue lines show that as t gets smaller, they approach the green line

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**Instantaneous Velocity, equations**

The general equation for instantaneous velocity is When “velocity” is used in the text, it will mean the instantaneous velocity

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**Instantaneous Velocity, Signs**

At point A, vx is positive The slope is positive At point B, vx is zero The slope is zero At point C, vx is negative The slope is negative

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Instantaneous Speed The instantaneous speed is the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity vector Speed can never be negative

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Fig 2.5

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**2.3 Constant Velocity If the velocity of a particle is constant**

Its instantaneous velocity at any instant is the same as the average velocity over a given time period vx = v x avg = Dx / Dt Also, xf = xi + vx t These equations can be applied to particles or objects that can be modeled as a particle moving under constant velocity

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Fig 2.6

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2.4 Average Acceleration Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity It is a measure of how rapidly the velocity is changing Dimensions are L/T2 SI units are m/s2

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**Instantaneous Acceleration**

The instantaneous acceleration is the limit of the average acceleration as t approaches 0

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**Instantaneous Acceleration – Graph**

The slope of the velocity vs. time graph is the acceleration Positive values correspond to where velocity in the positive x direction is increasing The acceleration is negative when the velocity is in the positive x direction and is decreasing Fig 2.7

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Fig 2.8

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Fig 2.10

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**2.5 Negative Acceleration**

Negative acceleration does not necessarily mean that an object is slowing down If the velocity is negative and the acceleration is negative, the object is speeding up Deceleration is commonly used to indicate an object is slowing down, but will not be used in this text

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**Acceleration and Velocity, 1**

When an object’s velocity and acceleration are in the same direction, the object is speeding up in that direction When an object’s velocity and acceleration are in the opposite direction, the object is slowing down

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**Acceleration and Velocity, 2**

The car is moving with constant positive velocity (shown by red arrows maintaining the same size) Acceleration equals zero

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**Acceleration and Velocity, 3**

Velocity and acceleration are in the same direction Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the same length) Velocity is increasing (red arrows are getting longer) This shows positive acceleration and positive velocity

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**Acceleration and Velocity, 4**

Acceleration and velocity are in opposite directions Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the same length) Velocity is decreasing (red arrows are getting shorter) Positive velocity and negative acceleration

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**2.6 Motions under constant acceleration**

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

For constant a, Can determine an object’s velocity at any time t when we know its initial velocity and its acceleration

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

For constant acceleration, The average velocity can be expressed as the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocities Only valid when acceleration is constant

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

For constant acceleration, This formula gives the position of the particle in terms of the initial and final velocities The acceleration is not given.

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

As constant acceleration is given, Gives final position in terms of initial velocity and acceleration The final velocity is not necessary in this formula.

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

For constant accelation, The final velocity is determined by initial velocity, acceleration and displacement There is no information about the time interval of the traveling.

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**Kinematic Equations – Summary**

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**Graphical Look of Motion – acceleration – time curve**

The zero slope indicates a constant acceleration Fig 2.12(c)

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**Graphical Look of Motion – velocity – time curve**

The slope gives the acceleration The straight line indicates a constant acceleration Fig 2.12(b)

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**Graphical Look of Motion – displacement – time curve**

The slope of the curve is the velocity The curved line indicates the velocity is changing Therefore, there is an acceleration Fig 2.12(a)

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Galileo Galilei( )

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Fig 2.14

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**2.7 Freely Falling Objects**

A freely falling object is any object moving freely under the influence of gravity alone It does not depend upon the initial motion of the object Dropped – released from rest Thrown downward Thrown upward

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**Acceleration of Freely Falling Object**

The acceleration of an object in free fall is directed downward, regardless of the initial motion The magnitude of free fall acceleration is g = 9.80 m/s2 g decreases with increasing altitude g varies with latitude 9.80 m/s2 is the average at the earth’s surface

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**Acceleration of Free Fall, cont.**

We will neglect air resistance Free fall motion is constantly accelerated motion in one dimension Let upward be positive Use the kinematic equations with ay = g = m/s2 The negative sign indicates the direction of the acceleration is downward

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Fig 2.15

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Free Fall Example Initial velocity at A is upward (+) and acceleration is g (-9.8 m/s2) At B, the velocity is 0 and the acceleration is g (-9.8 m/s2) At C, the velocity has the same magnitude as at A, but is in the opposite direction The displacement is –50.0 m (it ends up 50.0 m below its starting point)

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Exercises of chapter 2 4, 8, 14, 24, 28, 32, 33, 41, 44, 55, 60

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