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Acceleration Changes in Velocity

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**Acceleration Changing Velocity**

There are two major indicators that the velocity of an object has changed over time Change in spacing of dots Differences in lengths of velocity vectors If object speeds up, subsequent velocity vector longer If object slows down, each vector shorter than previous one

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**Acceleration Acceleration**

Acceleration - Rate at which object’s velocity changes When velocity of object changes at constant rate, has constant acceleration

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Acceleration Velocity-Time Graphs

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**Acceleration Average and Instantaneous Acceleration**

Average acceleration - Change in velocity during measurable time interval divided by time interval Instantaneous acceleration - Change in velocity at instant of time Measured in m/s2

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**Acceleration Average and Instantaneous Acceleration**

Instantaneous acceleration found by drawing tangent line on velocity- time graph at point of time in which interested. Slope of line equal to instantaneous acceleration

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**Acceleration Velocity and Acceleration**

How would you describe the sprinter’s velocity and acceleration as shown on the graph? Sprinter’s velocity starts at zero, increases rapidly for first few seconds, then, after reaching about 10.0 m/s, remains almost constant

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**Acceleration Positive and Negative Acceleration**

First - positive direction speeding up Second - positive direction slowing down Third speeding up negative direction Fourth slowing down negative direction

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**Acceleration Positive and Negative Acceleration**

When speeding up, velocity and acceleration vectors point in same direction When slowing down, acceleration and velocity vectors point in opposite direction Both direction of velocity and acceleration needed to determine whether speeding up or slowing down Positive acceleration when acceleration vector points in positive direction, and negative when vector points in negative direction Sign does not indicate whether object speeding up or slowing down

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**Acceleration Determining Acceleration from v-t Graph**

Assume positive direction east If no slope, acceleration zero A and E constant velocity B - positive velocity and constant, positive acceleration C negative slope, motion slows down, and stops (acceleration and velocity opposite) C and B crossing point shows velocities equal. Does not give runners’ positions

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**Acceleration Determining Acceleration from v-t Graph**

D - starts toward west, slows down, for instant zero velocity, then moves east increasing speed. Slope positive. Velocity and acceleration in opposite directions, speed decreases and equals zero at time graph crosses the axis. After that time, velocity and acceleration in same direction and speed increases

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**Acceleration Determining Acceleration from v-t Graph**

Average acceleration expressed as slope of velocity-time graph

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**Acceleration Determining Acceleration from v-t Graph**

On the basis of the velocity-time graph of a car moving up a hill, determine the average acceleration of the car?

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**Motion with Constant Acceleration**

Velocity with Average Acceleration Average acceleration: Rewritten as follows: And rearranged again:

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**Motion with Constant Acceleration**

Velocity with Average Acceleration When acceleration constant; average acceleration, ā, is the same as instantaneous acceleration, a Equation for final velocity can be rewritten to find time at which object with constant acceleration has given velocity Also used to calculate initial velocity when both velocity and time given

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**Motion with Constant Acceleration**

Position with Constant Acceleration Graph shows motion not uniform: Displacements get larger Slope of constant acceleration gets steeper

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**Motion with Constant Acceleration**

Position with Constant Acceleration Slopes used to create velocity-time graph contains information about displacement v - height of plotted line above t-axis Δt - width of shaded rectangle Area of rectangle is vΔt, or Δd (displacement)

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**Motion with Constant Acceleration**

Position with Constant Acceleration Graph shows the motion of an airplane. Find the displacement of airplane at Δt = 1.0 s and at Δt = 2.0 s

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**Motion with Constant Acceleration**

An Alternative Expression Often, it is useful to relate position, velocity, and constant acceleration without including time Pg. 68

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**Motion with Constant Acceleration**

An Alternative Expression Rearrange vf = vi + ātf, to solve for time: Rewriting di = df + vitf + ātf2 1 2

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**Motion with Constant Acceleration**

An Alternative Expression From the graph as shown, if a car slowing down with a constant acceleration from initial velocity vi to the final velocity vf, write the equation for the total distance (Δd) traveled by the car

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**Motion with Constant Acceleration**

An Alternative Expression On the v-t graph shown on the right, for an object moving with constant acceleration that started with an initial velocity of vi, derive the object’s displacement

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**Free Fall Acceleration due to gravity concept in motion**

At the top of its flight, the ball’s velocity is 0 m/s. What would happen if its acceleration were also zero? The ball’s velocity would remain at 0 m/s It would simply hover in the air at the top of its flight Acceleration of an object at the top of its flight can’t be zero. Further, acceleration must be downward

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**Free Fall Acceleration Due to Gravity**

Amusement parks use the concept of free fall to design rides that give the riders the sensation of free fall Rides usually consist of three parts: the ride to the top, momentary suspension, and the plunge downward When the cars are in free fall, the most massive rider and the least massive rider will have the same acceleration

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**Free Fall What is Free Fall?**

Free fall is the motion of the body when air resistance is negligible and the action can be considered due to gravity alone Gravity = 9.8 m/s2

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**Free Fall Acceleration Due to Gravity**

Suppose the free-fall ride at an amusement park starts at rest and is in free fall for 1.5 s. What would be its velocity at the end of 1.5 s?

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**Free Fall Acceleration Due to Gravity**

How far does the ride fall? (Hint: Use the equation for displacement when time and constant acceleration are known)

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