2 Science: The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena.PhysicsBiologyChemistryEnvironmental Science
3 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE DEFINITION Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development.It is inherently an interdisciplinary field that draws upon not only its core scientific areas, but also applies knowledge from other non-scientific studies such as economics, law and social sciences.
5 Environmental science encompasses issues such as climate change, conservation, biodiversity, groundwater and soil contamination, use of natural resources, waste management, sustainable development, air pollution and noise pollution.Due to the inherent interdisciplinary nature of environmental science, teams of professionals commonly work together to conduct environmental research or to produce Environmental Impact Statements, as required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) or under state laws.
10 Hypothesis: A trial explanation of certain facts that provides a basis for further experimentation. Theory: Well-established hypothesis. An explanation of the general principles of certain phenomena with considerable evidence or facts to support it.Law: Statement of natural phenomena to which no exceptions are known under the given conditions. A law is not an explanation.
11 1. Formulate a hypothesis to a problem. 2. Collect facts or data that are relevant to theproblem. This is done by experimentation.3. Analyze the data to find trends that arepertinent to the problem.4. Plan and do additional experiments to testthe hypothesis.5. Modify the hypothesis to ensurecompatibility with the experimental data.
12 Table 1. Water Quality Analyses of Tap & Bottled Waters Tested at BCC. SampleFluoride(mg/L)ChlorideNitrite(mg/L N)NitratePhosphateSulfateBCC Tap Water(7/12)1.149.61BDL0.831.116.65BCC Tap Water(7/19)7.26BCC Tap Water (7/27)10.490.911.196.87NYC Tap Water (45th Street)1.2015.050.971.447.62NYC Tap Water (Queens)0.765.890.434.21Poland Spring5.521.565.41Evian7.023.5213.83Deer Park0.981.78Culligan9.523.14-13.08Twin Mountain Peak23.423.297.30Great Bear9.160.321.07Long Island Well Water40.3314.620.079.72USEPA STANDARD4.0250*110NA
13 Household Water Purifiers: What Type Should You Buy? Dr. Neal PhillipYou are watching Channel 7 Eyewitness News and a Newsflash comes across the screen about an incident of contaminated drinking water in New Jersey. Though you live in Brooklyn, you panic and rush out to the local Home Depot to buy a water purifier.STOP!! Before you make a purchase, more out of fear than out of actual need, ask yourself what specifically you hope to accomplish by buying a water purifier. Most consumers shopping for a household water purifier start by looking in the wrong place. The store is the last stop they should make. The search should begin at home with a test to determine what’s in their drinking water.Not all home water purifier solve all drinking water problems. Some are designed to remove impurities that others don’t touch. Consumers should look for devices designed to remove specific impurities from their drinking water. Some of the common types available on the market are discussed below.Carbon FiltersCarbon filters remove some organic chemicals and reduce undesirable tastes, odors, and color. They also remove chlorine and some pesticides. Carbon filters however do not remove heavy metals such as lead. The popular BRITA filter is a carbon-based filter. Consumers undergoing kidney dialysis should not drink water containing oxidants like chlorine, so a BRITA filter is a good choice.Ion Exchange Water SoftenersThere are two types of water softeners, cation and anion ion exchangers. Cation ion exchangers solve hard water problems. They eliminate calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and other metals such as lead and copper by replacing them with sodium. Consumers on sodium-restricted diets should consider this before purchasing. Anion ion exchange units remove sulfates, nitrates, bicarbonates.Distillation UnitsDistillation units boils water then catches and condense the steam while contaminants remain in the boiling tank. Distillation removes heavy metals, ions and kills microorganisms present in the water.Make a Smart Choice!!!!The only way for consumers to be sure they get the right water purification device is first to determine what problems need to be solved. Without a thorough analysis of their drinking water, buying a product that claims to make it completely safe can be risky and costly business.
14 SCIENCE AS A WAY OF KNOWING Scientists collaborate in a cumulative, self-correcting process.Many people often work on many different aspects of a problem.Creativity, insight, aesthetics and even luck play important roles in scientific research.
15 Scientific DesignReproducibilityExperiments must be designed and recorded such that they can be exactly reproduced by other researchers.Controlled StudiesComparisons are made between experimental and control populations.Every factor except the one being studied is held constant.
16 Scientific Design Cont’d Blind ExperimentConducted so investigators do not know which is the control and which is the experimental group, until after data have been gathered and analyzed.Double-BlindNeither the subject nor the investigators know which participants are receiving an experimental treatment.
17 ReasoningDeductiveStarting with a general principle and deriving a testable predication about a specific case.InductiveSpecific examples are examined to locate patterns and derive general explanations from collected observations.
18 Modeling and Natural Experiments In some areas, historic evidence can be examined for support or contradiction of an idea.Another method of investigation is using a model simulating the phenomenon under study.Models represents researchers’ assumptions about how a system works.Can produce contradictory results.
20 Statistics and Probability An attempt to measure and predict the likelihood of an event.Sample SizeA critical experimental variable is the number of observations necessary in order to have a reliable representation of a population.
21 Approaches to Knowledge and Thinking Analytical ThinkingHow can I break this problem into parts?Creative ThinkingHow can I approach this differently?Logical ThinkingHow can deductive reasoning help?Critical ThinkingWhat am I trying to do?Reflective ThinkingWhat does it all mean?
22 Steps in Critical Thinking Identify and evaluate premises and conclusions in an argument.Acknowledge and clarify uncertainties, vagueness, equivocation, and contradictions.Distinguish between facts and values.Recognize and assess assumptions.Distinguish source reliability or unreliability.Recognize and understand conceptual frameworks.
23 History of Conservation and Environmentalism Four Distinct Stages:Pragmatic Resource ConservationMoral and Aesthetic Nature PreservationModern EnvironmentalismGlobal Environmental Citizenship
24 Pragmatic Resource Conservation President Theodore Roosevelt and his chief conservation advisor, Gifford Pinchot, believed in utilitarian conservation.Forests should be saved so they can be used to provide homes and jobs.Should be used for “the greatest good for the greatest number, for the longest time.”
25 Modern Environmentalism Rachel Carson, Silent Spring.Awakened the public to threats of pollution and toxic chemicals to humans as well as other species.Modern environmentalism extends concerns to include both natural resources and environmental pollution.
26 Global ConcernsIncreased travel and communication enables people to know about daily events in places unknown in previous generations.Common environment shared on a global scale.Global Environmentalism
27 CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Causes of Environmental DegradationMore than 6 billion people now occupy the earth, and we add about 85 million more each year.Most growth will be in poorer countries where present populations already strain resources and services.
28 Human Dimensions of Environmental Science A small fraction of the world’s population live in increasing luxury, while more than 1.4 billion people live in acute poverty.Seventy percent are women and children.Often meet short-term survival needs at the cost of long-term sustainability.Cycle of poverty, illness and limited opportunities become cyclic.
29 Rich and Poor Countries About 20% of the worlds population lives in the twenty richest countries.Average per capita income above $25,000.Other 80% live in middle or low-income countries.Ten poorest countries each have average per capita income of less than $Richest 200 people in the world have have a combined wealth of $1 trillion.More than total owned by poorest half of the world population (3 billion).
32 Sustainability Sustainable Development Sustainable development is a process of developing land, cities, business, communities, and so on that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" according to the Brundtland Report, a 1987 report from the United Nations. One of the factors which it must overcome is environmental degradation, but it must do so without forgoing the needs of economic development, social equality and justice.
33 Indigenous PeoplesIndigenous peoples are generally among the least powerful, most neglected groups.In many countries, traditional caste systems, discriminatory laws, economics, or prejudices repress indigenous peoples.In many places, indigenous people in traditional homelands guard undisturbed habitats and rare species.Recognizing native land rights may safeguard ecological processes.
36 Focus Questions for Quiz #1 Be able to define the following: science, environmental science.Be familiar with the following : hypotheses, theory, lawBe familiar with the steps involved in the Scientific MethodBe familiar with the History of Conservation and EnvironmentalismBe familiar with the work of Rachel CarsonBe familiar with the current environmental conditions and some of the reasons for environmental degradation (rapid increase in population , wealth gap between rich and poor countries)Be familiar with the concept of sustainable development and sustainability.