Presentation on theme: "INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWS and Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia."— Presentation transcript:
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWS and Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia
I NTELLECTUAL P ROPERTY Intellectual Property is a blanket term for multiple areas of law that govern the ownership and rights to "products of the mind." Definition: the intangible rights protecting the products of human intelligence and creation. Although largely governed by federal law, state law also governs some aspects of intellectual property.
I NTELLECTUAL P ROPERTY A REAS Intellectual property encompasses four areas of law, each of which governs creations of different types and promotes different policies: Copyright Trademark Patent Trade Secrets
C OPYRIGHT L AW Copyright laws grant to authors, artists, composers, and publishers the exclusive right to produce and distribute expressive and original work.. Copyright Act of 1976— Protects certain kinds of “original works of authorship”—whether published or unpublished Protects works “fixed in any tangible form of expression”
T RADEMARK L AW A trademark is a name, symbol, or other device identifying a product. The trademark laws allow businesses to protect the symbolic information that relates to their goods and services, by preventing the use of such features by competitors. The TM and SM symbols are used with unregistered marks: TM for trademarks, or marks that represent goods, and SM for service marks, or marks that represent services. The federal registration symbol, or ®, is reserved for marks registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Example: Coca Cola®, Nike®
P ATENTS & T RADE S ECRETS Patent law provides ownership rights and protection for unique processes, procedures, methods, inventions, and discoveries. It gives the patent owner the exclusive right to exploit (i.e. create, use, sell, distribute) the invention for a limited period of time (typically twenty years from the time of a patent application filing). Trade secrets law protects secret information that a company or other organization creates or compiles to give it an economic advantage over its competitors.
T HE COPYRIGHT LAW COVERS... Literary works (books, poems, software) Musical works, including any accompanying words Dramatic works, including any accompanying music Pantomimes and choreographic works Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works Motion pictures and other audiovisual works Sound recordings Architectural works
D OES NOT COVER... Ideas Facts Titles Names Short phrases Blank forms
R IGHTS OF THE OWNER You have the right to: Reproduce the work Distribute copies of the work Make a “derivative” work (make copies or changes from the original) Publicly perform the work Put the work on public display If you perform any of these tasks and are NOT the copyright owner, you are infringing on their rights. Example: copying software, sharing MP3 files, photocopying, uploading materials to websites, etc.
E XCEPTION TO OWNERSHIP In the case of works made for hire, the employer and not the employee is considered to be the author. Section 101 of the copyright law defines a “work made for hire” as: A work prepared by an employee within the scope of his or her employment; or A work specially ordered or commissioned for use
Fair Use Public Domain Royalty-Free If intellectual property is covered by law, what options do we have?
F AIR U SE G UIDELINES Portions, or in some cases the entirety, of a protected work may be used Legitimate uses include “criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research.”
F AIR U SE F ACTORS For use to fall under the Fair Use guidelines, the following factors must be considered: Purpose and character of use—commercial or non- profit educational purposes The nature of the protected work The amount and substantiality of the portion used The effect of the use upon the potential market value of the product
M EDIA - F AIR U SE L IMITATIONS Motion media10% or 3 minutes, whichever is less Text material10% or 1000 words, whichever is less Music10% or 3 minutes, whichever is less Photographs / Illustrations 5 images per photographer/ artist; 10% or 15 images from a collective work
P UBLIC D OMAIN Property rights that belong to the community at large, are unprotected by copyright or patent, and are subject to use by anyone You should have documentation that the item is in public domain before using it Anything published before 1923 Anything created by the U.S. Federal Government Public domain is not the same as freeware or shareware: Freeware: software that is provided without a charge Shareware: copyrighted software that is available free of charge on a trial basis
R OYALTY - FREE Prepared material that can be used—legally— without paying a fee to the artist, publishing company, etc. Some royalty-free material is available at no cost; however, most material must be purchased. Royalty-free doesn’t necessarily mean FREE—you may have to pay for it.
R EMEMBER... Credit your sources! “Educators and students are reminded to credit the sources and display the copyright notice and copyright ownership information.... ” When you create a work, you own the rights to that work. Creating projects for the classroom is not necessarily the same as creating projects for competition—know the guidelines.
R EMEMBER... It is permissible to download limited amounts of material for use in a student project, but you can’t download material from one web site and post it to yours. Know that royalty-free doesn’t mean unlimited rights—but it does expand your options There is a difference in personal use, educational use, and the workplace.