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Block Pavements Construction and Design Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch SEPT-Workshop 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Block Pavements Construction and Design Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch SEPT-Workshop 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Block Pavements Construction and Design Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch SEPT-Workshop 2011

2 Structure Standards and Regulations Design and Construction of Concrete Block Pavements Upper Roadbase Laying Course Joints Block Pavement Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |2

3 Standards and Regulations

4 European Standards Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |4 Aggregates for unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures (DIN EN 13242) Unbound mixtures (DIN EN 13285) Concrete paving blocks and flags (DIN EN 1338, DIN EN 1339) Kerb units (DIN EN 1340, DIN EN 1343) Forms and dimensions of concrete kerb units (DIN 428) Clay pavers (DIN EN 1344) Clinker (DIN 18503) Setts and slabs of natural stone for external paving (DIN EN 1341, DIN EN 1342)

5 National technical requirements based on the EN Construction products: Technische Lieferbedingungen für Bauprodukte zur Herstellung von Pflasterdecken, Plattenbelägen und Einfassungen – TL Pflaster 2006 FGSV [technical conditions for the delivery to the place of use] Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |5

6 National technical requirements based on the EN Construction of block and flag pavements and of kerbs : ATV DIN 18318: Verkehrswegebauarbeiten, Pflasterdecken, Plattenbeläge, Einfassungen [german standard as state of the art] Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |6

7 National technical requirements based on the EN Construction of block and flag pavements and of kerbs in public roads: Zusätzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien zur Herstellung von Pflasterdecken, Plattenbelägen und Einfassungen - ZTV Pflaster - StB 2006, FGSV [additional technical conditions for the construction as part of the contract] Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |7

8 TL Gestein-StB national regulations for aggregates for the layer course and joints ATV DIN Construction TL Pflaster-StB National regulations for products ZTV Pflaster-StB Construction of public roads DIN EN Products e.g. blocks, flags Zusätzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien zur Herstellung von Pflasterdecken, Plattenbelägen und Einfassungen ZTV Pflaster - StB 06 Ausgabe 2006 Technical Regulations in Germany Technische Lieferbedingungen für Bauprodukte zur Herstellung von Pflasterdecken, Plattenbelägen und Einfassungen TL Pflaster - StB 06 Ausgabe 2006

9 Standardisation / Dimensions of pavements Richtlinien für die Standardisierung des Oberbaus von Verkehrsflächen – RStO 2001 [code of practise for road and pavement construction] Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |9

10 Further Regulations Hydraulically bound block pavements: FGSV-working paper Nr. 618/2: Flächenbefestigungen mit Pflasterdecken und Plattenbelägen in gebundener Ausführung – 2007 Larger formats: Information sheet in preparation – published 2012? Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |10

11 Further Regulations Water permeable block pavements Information sheet for water permeable pavements of traffic areas – 1998 Changings and supplements for the information sheet for water permeable pavements of traffic areas – 2009 Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |11

12 Design and Construction of Contrete Block Pavements

13 National Regulation: Blocks Flags / Slabs L : D 4 : 1 L D B Use: -Blocks: Roads and footways, L max = 320 mm -Flags / Slabs: Areas without motor vehicle traffic, L max = 600 mm

14 Classes of traffic: resulting from the sum of 10-t-equivalent axle loadings in 30 years table 1:

15 Roads:

16 Classes of traffic (without calculation) Type of roadclass high-speed road SV / I / II major road, road in industrial areas or estates II / III local distributor road, pedestrian area with cargo traffic III / IV access road, pedestrian area (without bus traffic)V / VI table 2:

17 RStO Tafel 3 concrete basecourse asphalt roadbase gritty or gravel roadbase gravel subbase gravel roadbase gravel subbase gritty roadbase bedding layer Pavement structure of block pavements line class blocks and joints

18 RStO Tafel 3 concrete roadbase asphalt roadbase Gritty or gravel roadbase gravel subbase gravel roadbase gravel subbase Gritty roadbase Bedding layer Blocks and joints gravel subbase

19 Example for Roads Gritty roadbase Gravel subbase Subgrade Blocks Laying course Block thickness: BK III: 100 mm BK IV- VI: 80 mm Bedding layer: Blocks 120 mm: 3 (2) – 5 cm Blocks > 120 mm: 3 (2) – 5 cm or 4 (3) – 6 cm Stiffness modulus: min-E v2 [MN/m²] 120 / / 120 Joints: Blocks 120 mm: 3 – 5 mm Blocks >120 mm: 5 – 8 mm

20 Example for footways and cycle tracks: Roadbase Subgrade Blocks or flags Laying course 8 3 – 5 19 / [cm] Stiffness modulus: min-E v2 [MN/m²]

21 Upper Roadbase Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |21

22 Usual: Unbound Roadbase -Adequate permeability of water required -Material segregation must be avoided -Fines < 0,063 mm: Maximum 7 M.-% -Filter stability between roadbase and layer course must be proofed

23 Filter stability D 15 /d 85 5 D 50 /d d, D: Particle size of aggregates [mm] at 15 / 50 / 85 % passing the sieve d: Layer course D: Roadbase equations:

24 Bearing capacity of the upper roadbase BK III and IV: -Thickness 20 cm:E v2 180 MN/m² or E v2 150 MN/m² Problems with water permeability! Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |24

25 Asphalt roadbase Adequate permeability of water required Material: PA 22 T WDA Void content of the compacted asphalt: 13 Vol.%, (research project: 16 Vol.-%) Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |25 Changings and supplements for the information sheet for water permeable pavements of traffic areas

26

27 Laying Course (3 – 5 cm) Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |27

28 Bedding Materials Shape: Roads: crushed, sharp coarse, E CS 35, C 90/3 Other areas:no requirements Grading: Block thickness < 120 mm: 0/4, 0/5, 0/8 mm Block thickness 120 mm: 0/4, 0/5, 0/8, 0/11 mm Roads: Category G U Others: Category G N Content of fines: max. 5 M.% E.g. Mixture 0/5: G U : 0/2 between 30 – 60 M.-% 2/5 between 40 – 70 M.-% G N : no requirement

29 Exception for e.g. private Areas ATV DIN Areas, which are not reachable for motor vehicles: Possible alternative grading: 0/2, 1/3, 2/5 mm Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |29

30 Aggregates, dependent on mineral and use: -SZ 18, LA 20 -SZ 22, LA 25 -SZ 26, LA 30 Beddings in public roads: -Material with enough mechanical strength! -Recommendation for BK III and IV: SZ 22, LA 25 or better Mechanical Behavior

31 Joint filling materials (Joints 3 – 5 mm) Shape: Roads: crushed, E CS 35, C 90/3 Other areas:no requirements Grading: Block thickness < 120 mm: (0/2), 0/4, 0/5, 0/8 mm Block thickness 120 mm: 0/4, 0/5, 0/8, 0/11 mm Roads: Category G U Others: Category G N Content of fines : min. 2 M.-%, max. 9 M.% Mechanical strength: SZ 18, LA 20; SZ 22, LA 25; SZ 26, LA 30

32 Requirements between bedding and joint material: D 15 /d 15 1 D 15 /d 85 4 D 50 /d 50 5 D 15 ; D 50 Particle size of bedding material [mm] at 15 / 50 % passing the sieve d 50 ; d 85 Particle size of granular joint filling [mm] at 50 % passing the sieve - particle top size of the joint filling must not be smaller than 1 sieve size less than the particle top size of the bedding material Filter Stability / Erosion equations:

33 D 15 /d 85 4 D 50 /d 50 5 Bedding material Joint filling D 15 /d 15 1 Particle size [mm] Percentage passing the sieve [M.-%]

34 Granular material intended as seeling of joints The upper part of the joints can be filled with another material to prevent material loss as a result of traffic and surface cleaning Grading: 0/2 mm High fines amount > 9 M.-% crushed shape No further material requirements

35 Bitumen intended as compound joint seeler Only with joints > 8 mm (e. g. natural stone pavement) Bitumen 3 cm, < 1/3 of stone thickness

36 Block Applying and Finishing of the Pavement e. g.: Minimum transverse slope: 2,5 % at each layer Joints have to be regular Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Koch |36

37 Crossing joints only for areas without car traffic!

38 No filling block smaller than half a block

39 Filling of the joints and compacting filling the joints by sweeping and washing cleaning the surface, drying and compacting maybe filling and compacting again maybe joint seeling by sweeping and washing of fine aggregates (about 1 cm)

40 Maximum unevenness of the surface, 4-m-straightedge Upper roadbase: general: 2 cm recommendation: under block pavements: 1 cm (to be fixed in a contract) Road surface: 10 mm Gutters: 5 mm end

41 Thank you for listening! damage in front of an entrance to a bank, in use severel days after damage


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