2 Work and HeatIn what direction does heat flow spontaneously?Heat is ________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________Heat flows spontaneously from _______objects to ________objects.
3 TemperatureWhat is the temperature of an object related to?Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object due to their _____________________________________.
4 TemperatureTemperature is a _____________________ ____________________________________.On the Celsius scale, the reference points are the ________and __________points of water.On the Kelvin scale, ________________is defined as a temperature of 0 kelvins.
5 TemperatureAs an object heats up, __________________ ______________________, on average. The average kinetic energy of the particles increases.One way that heat flows is by the transfer of energy in _______________.On average, ________________ particles lose energy. ________________particles gain energy.Overall, collisions transfer thermal energy from _________________________________.
6 Thermal EnergyWhat two variables is thermal energy related to?Thermal energy is the total ____________and ________________energy of all the particles in an object.Thermal energy depends on the __________, ______________, and ______________(solid, liquid, or gas) of an object.
7 Thermal EnergyThermal energy depends on ___________. A cup of tea and a teapot full of tea can have the same temperature.The average kinetic energy of the particles is the same in the cup and the pot.There is more ___________________in the teapot because it contains more particles.
8 Thermal EnergyThermal energy depends on ______________. Compare a cup of hot tea with a cup of cold tea.In both cups, the tea has the same mass and number of particles.The average kinetic energy of particles is higher in the hot tea, so it has __________thermal energy.
9 Thermal EnergyThermal energy depends on mass and temperature.The tea is at a higher temperature than the lemonade.The lemonade has more thermal energy because it has many more particles.
10 Thermal Contraction and Expansion What causes thermal expansion?Thermal expansion _____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________Thermal expansion occurs when particles of matter move farther apart as _____________ increases.
11 Thermal EnergyIf you take a balloon outside on a cold winter day, it _______________in a process of thermal contraction.As temperature ______________, the particles that make up the air inside the balloon move more slowly, on average.Slower particles collide less often and exert less force.Gas pressure _______________and the balloon ______________________.
12 Thermal EnergyIf you bring the balloon inside, it ________________.Gases expand ________than liquids and liquids usually expand ___________than solids.As temperature increases, the alcohol in a thermometer _______________, and its height increases in proportion to the increase in temperature.In an oven thermometer, strips of steel and brass expand at different rates as the coil heats up. The ___________________________________________________________________________________.
13 Specific HeatHow is a change in temperature related to specific heat?Specific heat is _________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________The lower a material’s specific heat, the more its ______________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________
14 Specific HeatWhen a car is heated by the sun, the temperature of the metal door increases more than the temperature of the plastic bumper.The iron in the door has a _____________ _____________than the plastic in the bumper.
16 Specific HeatIn this formula, heat is in _________, mass is in __________, specific heat is in ________, and the temperature change is in degrees ___________________.
17 Specific Heat1. How much heat is needed to raise the temperature of g of water by 85.0°C?2. How much heat is absorbed by a 750-g iron skillet when its temperature rises from 25°C to 125°C? Answer: Q = m * c * ∆TAnswer: Q = m * c * ∆T
18 Specific Heat3. In setting up an aquarium, the heater transfers 1200 kJ of heat to 75,000 g of water. What is the increase in the water’s temperature? (Hint: Rearrange the specific heat formula to solve for ∆T.) Answer: ∆T = Q / (m x c)4. To release a diamond from its setting, a jeweler heats a 10.0-g silver ring by adding 23.5 J of heat. How much does the temperature of the silver increase? Answer: ∆T = Q / (m x c)
19 Specific Heat5. What mass of water will change its temperature by 3.0°C when 525 J of heat is added to it? Answer: m = Q / (∆T x c)
20 Specific HeatOn what principle does a calorimeter operate?A calorimeter is an ______________________ ______________________________________The lower a material’s specific heat, the more its temperature rises when a given amount of energy is absorbed by a given mass.
21 Specific HeatAccording to the law of conservation of energy, ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The calorimeter is sealed to prevent thermal energy from escaping.
22 Specific HeatA calorimeter is used to measure specific heat. A sample is heated and placed in the calorimeter. _______________________________________________________________
23 What is the thermal energy of an object? Assessment QuestionsWhat is the thermal energy of an object?the total number of atoms or moleculesthe total kinetic energy of the atoms or moleculesthe average kinetic energy of the atoms or moleculesthe average mechanical energy of the atoms or molecules
24 Assessment QuestionsWhat causes a gas to expand when its temperature is increased?The number of particles increases as temperature increases.Each particle expands as its temperature increases, so the total volume increases.As temperature increases, more electrons leave atoms and move separately.As gas particles move faster, they overcome some forces of attraction.The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g•°C. How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 1,000 grams of water by 50°C?83.6 J83.6 kJ209 J209 kJ
25 What property of matter can be measured using a calorimeter? Assessment QuestionsWhat property of matter can be measured using a calorimeter?temperaturethermal expansionspecific heatmassTemperature is the transfer of thermal energy from one object to another. True False
26 Newton’s cradle helps to visualize conduction Newton’s cradle helps to visualize conduction. One ball strikes the rest, and most of the kinetic energy is transferred to one ball on the end.
27 ConductionWhy is conduction slower in gases than in liquids or solids?Conduction is __________________________ ______________________________________Conduction in gases is slower than in liquids and solids because _______________ ____________________________________________________________________________
28 ConductionConduction occurs within a material or ___________________________________.In conduction, collisions between particles transfer thermal energy, without any overall transfer of matter.A thermal conductor _________________ ______________________________________________________________________
29 ConductionThe arrows show how thermal energy is conducted away from the heat source in a metal frying pan.
30 Conduction____________are good thermal conductors.When a frying pan is on a hot stove, the bottom of the metal pan heats first and the metal handle last. The flames ____________ ____________________________________Tile is a better conductor than wood. A tile floor feels colder than a wooden floor when both floors are at room temperature. The tile ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________
31 ConductionThermal InsulatorsA material that conducts thermal energy poorly is called a _____________________.Air is a very good insulator. Wool garments and plastic foam cups use trapped air to slow down conduction.
32 ConvectionIn what natural cycles do convection currents occur?Convection ____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________Convection currents are important in many natural cycles, such as _________________, _________________, and movements of ___ _____________________________________.
33 ConvectionPassing sandbags along a line is like transferring thermal energy by convection.The arrows show convection of air in an oven.
34 ConvectionA ______________________occurs when a fluid circulates in a loop as it alternately heats up and cools down.Air at the bottom of an oven heats up, expands, and becomes less dense. __________________________.Rising hot air cools as it moves away from the heat source.As a result, the coolest air is at the top of the oven.
35 RadiationHow does an object’s temperature affect radiation?Radiation is ___________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________All objects radiate energy. As an object’s temperature ____________, the rate at which it radiates energy ___________________.
36 RadiationWhen you stand to the side of a charcoal grill, heat reaches you ______________________ ____________________________________The sun warms you by ______________on a clear day. The space between the sun and Earth has no air to transfer thermal energy.Heat lamps used in restaurants are another example of radiation.
37 RadiationThe heating coil on a stove radiates thermal energy.The changing color of the red arrows indicates that the farther you are from the coil, ______________ ____________________.
38 Thermodynamics_____________________________________________________________________________________________thermodynamics._____________________( ) carefully measured the energy changes in a system. Joule's system included a falling weight that turned a paddle wheel in a container of water.Joule found that the work done by the falling weight almost exactly equaled the thermal energy gained by the water.
39 ThermodynamicsFirst Law of ThermodynamicsThe first law of thermodynamics states that _____________________________________.
40 ThermodynamicsEnergy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be ______________into different forms.Added energy increases the thermal energy of a system or does work on the system. In either case, energy is conserved.
41 ThermodynamicsPushing on the pump does work on the system.Some of the work is converted into ___________ ________________, which heats the air in the pump and the tire.
42 ThermodynamicsSecond Law of ThermodynamicsThe second law of thermodynamics states _____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
43 ThermodynamicsThermal energy flows spontaneously only from _____________to ___________________objects.A refrigerator must do work to transfer thermal energy from the cold food compartment to the warm room air.The thermal energy is released by _____________at the bottom or in the back of the refrigerator.
44 ThermodynamicsA heat engine is _____________________________ ___________________________________________The efficiency of a heat engine is always less than _________________Thermal energy that is not converted into work is called __________________________Waste heat is lost to the surrounding environment.
45 Thermodynamics__________________________will always make a system less orderly, unless work is done on the system.For example, if you walk long enough, your shoelaces will become untied. But the opposite won't happen; shoelaces don't tie themselves. Disorder in the universe as a whole is always increasing.
46 ThermodynamicsThird Law of ThermodynamicsThe third law of thermodynamics states that _____________________________________.
47 ThermodynamicsThe efficiency of a heat engine increases with a greater difference between ____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________A heat engine could be ________________efficient if the cold outside environment were at absolute zero (0 Kelvin). This would violate the third law of thermodynamics.
48 ThermodynamicsThe third law of thermodynamics states that absolute zero cannot be reached.This physicist uses a laser to cool rubidium atoms to 3 billionths of a Kelvin above absolute zero.
49 Assessment QuestionsWhat form of energy transfer requires the motion of particles of a fluid?conductionconvectionradiationinsulationWhat happens in every case in which energy is added to a system?Temperature increases.Work is done on the system.All of the energy can be accounted for as work or heat.An identical amount of energy is removed from the system.
50 Assessment QuestionsThermal energy can move from a cooler object to a warmer object whenthe warmer object is larger.the cooler object has more thermal energy.energy is transferred by radiation.work is done on the system.According to the third law of thermodynamics, it is impossibleto cool an object to absolute zero.transfer thermal energy from a cooler object to a warmer object.convert energy from one form to another.account for all of the energy in a system.
51 Assessment QuestionsAll metals are good thermal insulators. True False
52 Heat engines played a key role in the development of the modern industrial world. Steam locomotives were an important early use of the steam engine. Electric power plants today use steam turbines.
53 Heat EnginesWhat are the two main types of heat engines?The two main types of heat engines are the ____________________________and the _____________________________________.
54 External Combustion Engine Heat EnginesExternal Combustion EngineA steam engine is an external combustion engine—an ______________________________ __________________________________________________________________developed the first practical steam engine in 1712 to pump water out of coal mines.__________________________designed an engine in 1765 that operated at a higher temperature and was more efficient.
55 Heat EnginesWhen the valve in a steam engine slides, steam is trapped in the cylinder. The steam expands and cools as it pushes the piston to the left.Hot steam inSlide valveExhaust steam outValve rodPiston rodCylinderPiston
56 Heat EnginesInternal Combustion EngineAn internal combustion engine _____________ ________________________________________________________________________________Most internal combustion engines use pistons that move up and down inside cylinders. Each upward or downward motion of a piston is called a __________.
57 Heat EnginesMost cars have a ________________internal combustion engine. This diagram shows only one of the cylinders during each stroke.Intake valveSpark plugExhaust valveAir-fuel mixtureCylinderExhaust gasesPistonIntake strokeCompression StrokePower strokeExhaust stroke
58 Heat EnginesIn an internal combustion engine, the cooling system and exhaust transfer heat from the engine to the environment.Gasoline engines are more efficient than old-fashioned steam engines, but they still are not very efficient. About _______________of the energy in a gasoline engine is converted to work.
59 Heating SystemsHow do most heating systems distribute thermal energy?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
60 Heating SystemsA central heating system heats many rooms from _________________________________.The most commonly used energy sources for central heating systems are _____________________________ _____________________________________________Heating systems differ in how they transfer thermal energy to the rest of the building.
61 Heating SystemsHot-Water HeatingAt the boiler, heating oil or natural gas burns and _________________________________.The circulating pump carries the hot water to ______________________in each room.The hot water transfers thermal energy to the radiator by __________________________.
62 Heating SystemsThe hot pipes heat the room air by _____________ and _______________________.Hot air rises and sets up a convection current in each room.The cooled water returns to the boiler.
63 Heating SystemsThermostatWithin the pipes of this hot-water heating system, the water circulates in a ________________current. In each room, the air moves in a convection current.RadiatorExhaust ventExpansion tankBoilerCirculating pump
64 Heating Systems Steam Heating Steam heating is very similar to hot-water heating except that ______________ is used instead of hot water.The transfer of heat from the steam-heated radiator to the room still occurs by _____________________.Steam heating often is used in older buildings or when many buildings are heated from one central location.
65 Electric Baseboard Heating Heating SystemsElectric Baseboard HeatingAn electric baseboard heater ________________ _______________________________________.A conductor is used to convert electrical energy to ___________________________.The hot coil heats the air near it by conduction and radiation.Convection circulates the warm air to heat the room.
66 Heating Systems Forced-Air Heating Forced-air heating systems use ______________ _______________________________________________________________________________.Convection circulates air in each room.Warm air entering the room ____________________ __________________________________________.Cool room air returns to the furnace through floor vents on the other side of the room.
67 Heating SystemsHot air enters the room through a supply vent in the floor. The hot air rises as cooler, denser air in the room sinks.Hot air risesCool air sinksSupply ventReturn ventChimneyDuctFurnace
68 Cooling SystemsHow does a heat pump reverse the normal flow of heat?A heat pump __________________________ _____________________________________.Heat pumps must do work on a refrigerant in order to reverse the normal flow of thermal energy.
69 Cooling SystemsA refrigerant is a ____________________________ __________________________________________When the refrigerant absorbs heat, ________________ _____________________________________________When the refrigerant gives off heat,_________________ _____________________________________________
70 Cooling Systems Refrigerators A refrigerator is a heat pump—_______________ _______________________________________________________________________________.A ______________must do work to move refrigerant through tubing inside the refrigerator walls.Coils of tubing underneath or behind the refrigerator release heat absorbed from the food compartment and thermal energy produced by the work the motor does.
71 Cooling SystemsWhen a refrigerator door is open, some thermal energy from the room enters the refrigerator. _______ ___________________________________________________.Temperature in room: 25°CTemperature in refrigerator: 3°C
72 Cooling SystemsAir ConditionersThe ________________ in a room air conditioner raises the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant, turning it into a hot, high-pressure gas.The condenser coil is hotter than the outside air, so heat flows spontaneously to the outside air.The ________________cools and condenses into a liquid.
73 Cooling SystemsThe liquid refrigerant then flows through the expansion valve and ________________________.As the cold refrigerant flows through the evaporator coil, it absorbs _________________ from the warm room air.The fan sends cold air back into the room. The refrigerant becomes a vapor, and the process starts all over again.
74 Cooling SystemsIn a window air conditioner, outside air is heated as a fan blows it through the condenser coil.Condenser coil Vapor cools to liquid as heat is removed.Warm air outCold air outCompressorExpansion valve Pressure drops, causing liquid refrigerant to become cold.Warm air inEvaporator coil Liquid absorbs heat to become vapor.
75 Assessment QuestionsOnly about one-third of the energy in gasoline is converted to work in an internal combustion engine. The rest of the chemical energy islost as unused mechanical energy.destroyed by the engine.converted to potential energy.discharged as waste heat.How is a room heated by an electric baseboard heating system?conduction and convection onlyconduction and radiation onlyconvection and radiation onlyconduction, convection, and radiation
76 Assessment QuestionsHow do air conditioners reverse the normal flow of heat?moving cool air from outside to inside the house separating warm atoms from cool atoms vaporizing and condensing a refrigerant blowing the warm air away with a fanForced air heating systems are often used to heat many buildings from a central location. True False