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Published byCharlene Watts Modified over 9 years ago

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Objectives of this Section Graph Inequalities Find Distance on the Real Number Line Evaluate Algebraic Expressions Determine the Domain of a Variable Use the Laws of Exponents Evaluate Square Roots Use a Calculator to Evaluate Exponents Use Scientific Notation Sullivan Algebra and Trigonometry: Section R.2 Algebra Review

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The Real Number Line The negative real numbers are the coordinates of points to the left of the origin 0. The real number zero is the coordinate of the origin O. The positive real numbers are the coordinates of points to the right of the origin O.

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Comparing the position of two numbers on the number line is done using inequalities. a < b means a is to the left of b a = b means a and b are at the same location a > b means a is to the right of b Inequalities can also be used to describe the sign of a real number. a > 0 is equivalent to a is positive. a < 0 is equivalent to a is negative.

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If P and Q are two points on a real number line with coordinates a and b, respectively, the distance between P and Q, denoted by d (P, Q), is Example: Find the distance between –3 and 2 on the number line.

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Recall, letters such as x, y, z, a, b, and c are used to represent numbers. If the letter is used to represent any number from a given set of numbers, it is called a variable. The set of values that a variable may assume is called the domain of the variable.

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Example of Domain The result is read “The set of all real numbers z such that z is not equal to –3”

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Exponents: Basic Definitions If a is a real number and n is a positive integer,

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Examples:

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Laws of Exponents

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Example:

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Simplify the expression. Express the answer so only positive exponents occur.

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Absolute Value is needed here, since the principal square root produces a positive value. Example:

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Using your calculator For Scientific Calculators: Evaluate: Keystrokes: 3.4 = 133.6336 For Graphing Calculators: Evaluate: Keystrokes: 3.4 = 133.6336 ^

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Converting a Decimal to Scientific Notation 1. Count the number N of places that the decimal point must be moved in order to arrive at a number x, where 1 < x < 10. 2. If the original number is greater than or equal to 1, the scientific notation is If the original number is between 0 and 1, the scientific notation is

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Examples: Scientific Notation Write the number 5,100,000,000 in scientific notation. Solution: Write the number 0.00032 in scientific notation. Solution: Write as a decimal. Solution: 0.000043

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