# Energy and Sustainability. Energy How much energy do you need? How much energy do you use?

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Energy and Sustainability

Energy How much energy do you need? How much energy do you use?

Energy How much energy do you need? Energy from food = 2,000 Calories / day = 8,000 BTUs / day Energy for all of the other things you do = (Take a guess) _____________ BTUs ?

How much? Total annual energy consumption in the United States (2011) 97.3 quadrillion BTUs ~ 10 17 BTUs ~ 10 20 Joules (1 BTU = 1055 Joules)

How much? Total U.S. energy consumption = 97 x 10 15 BTUs / year Then your energy consumption / day is 97 x 10 15 BTUs / year (316,000,000 people) (365 days / year) = 840,000 BTUs / person / day ( + 8,000 BTUs from food )

How much? So, if you are a typical U.S. resident, you will use about 848,000 BTUs of energy today Food: 8,000 BTUs For all other things: 840,000 BTUs How can this be?

U.S. Energy Uses Sector Electric Power40% Transportation 28% Industry21% Res & Commercial 11% Total (97 quads)100% Your energy use = Direct use + Indirect use

U.S. Energy Sources

U.S. Renewable Energy Renewables are ~ 9% of U.S. Total Energy Consumed Source (quads) Hydroelectric 3.2 Wood2.0 Biofuels1.9 Wind1.2 Waste0.5 Geothermal0.2 Solar / PV 0.2 Total (quads) 9.1

Oil35% Natural Gas24% Coal28% Nuclear6% Hydro6% Renewable2% Total510 quads = 200,000 BTUs / person / day World Energy Consumption

Personal Consumption BTUs / person / day United States840,000 Australia718,000 France498,000 Japan440,000 Mexico157,000 China130,000 Brazil84,000 India36,000 Parts of Africa7,000

Population

How much energy do we have left?

Energy Reserves Estimated world reserves of fossil fuels (in quadrillion BTUs): Years left Quadsat current consumedconsumption Reserves per year rate Oil6,37017836 Natural gas6,39012153 Coal20,250143142

Are there any other problems?

The Carbon Problem Fuels: Oil35% Natural Gas24%87% Coal28% Nuclear6% Hydro6% Renewable2% 510 Quadrillion BTUs / year

The Carbon Problem

Green Strategies Conservation Efficiency Geothermal Solar Passive Photovoltaic Fuel cells Tidal Wind Waves Hydroelectric Nuclear Biomass

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