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Species, Biodiversity, and Sustainability

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1 Species, Biodiversity, and Sustainability
Chapters 4, 5, and 9

2 Biodiversity The variety of earth’s species
The genetic diversity stored in all living organisms The ecosystems in which organisms live

3 Species A set of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring 10-14 million species, 1.9 million identified Rain forests house up to 50% of all species on the planet Insects make up the greatest percentage of known species Unidentified species – rain forests and oceans What does fertile mean?

4 Types of Diversity Species – all the different organisms
Genetic – the genetic variety available Ecosystem – how biomes differ and thus the species and genetic diversity differ by area

5 E.O. Wilson Encyclopedia of Life
First used the term biodiversity in a scientific paper Theory of island biogeography Explains how species diversity on islands is affected by the size and location of the island Large islands tend to have more species of a certain category (insects, birds, or cacti)

6 Theory of Island Biogeography
Species richness is determined by: The rate at which new species immigrate to the island The rate at which species go locally extinct (on the island) Two island characteristics are also involved Island size (larger =  species richness) Island distance from the mainland (closer to mainland =  species richness)

7 Islands Islands make good study areas because they are relatively isolated and the arrival of new species and the extinction of species can be easily observed. Hotspots

8 Island Biogeography cont.
Used to study habitat islands – areas of natural habitat – such as national parks or wildlife refuges that are surrounded by developed or fragmented land Suppose we have two national parks surrounded by development: one large and one small. Which one will have higher species richness?

9 Evolution Microevolution Macroevolution Occurs below the species level
Different varieties of apples or potatoes Macroevolution Occurs when new genera, families, classes, or phyla arise The term speciation is restricted to the evolution of new species

10 Evolution – 3 pathways Artificial Selection Natural Selection
Humans decide which traits an organism will be bred for Natural Selection The environment determines selects Favors individuals with greatest “fitness” meaning an organisms ability to survive & reproduce Random Processes – Not based on the organisms fitness, but other random, nonadaptive processes

11 Artificial Selection


13 Evolution by Natural Selection
Evolution – the process where organisms change over time through changes in the genetic characteristics of population in response to environmental conditions Theory of Evolution – All species are descended from earlier, ancestral species The theories of evolution and natural selection focus on populations and changes in populations over time rather than individuals.

14 Evolution by Natural Selection continued
Darwin Beagle/Galapagos On the Origin of Species (1859) Natural Selection Alfred Russel Wallace

15 Genes Physical locations on chromosomes within each cell of an organism Determine the range of possible traits (physical or behavorial characteristics) Complete set of genes is called its genotype genotype vs. phenotype Geno = genetic coding of ALL traits an organism may possess Pheno = appearance (actual set of traits that were expressed)

16 Mutations Mutation Somatic Germinal random changes in DNA (mistakes)
Changes that are expressed in the individual and are not passed on to their offspring (cancer cells) Germinal Changes that can be inherited by offspring; occurs in cells that give rise to gamete cells

17 Evolution by Random Processes other than mutations
Genetic Drift Change in genetic composition over time as a result of random mating Usually more important in small populations Bottleneck Effect A drastic reduction in the size of a population causes a corresponding decrease in genetic diversity Founder Effect When a few individuals migrate to a previously unpopulated area

18 Natural Selection Trait Adaptation or adaptive trait
A characteristic possessed by some individuals that allow them to survive and reproduce at higher rates that other members of the population These traits become more common in the population over time Adaptation or adaptive trait Any heritable trait that improves the ability of an individual organism to survive and to reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals in a population under prevailing environmental conditions

19 Natural Selection cont.
In order for natural selection to take place, adaptive traits must lead to differential reproduction which enables individuals with the trait to produce more surviving offspring than other members of the population produce. Peppered moth (White – Black – White) Water “SuperLions” English Bulldog – what would happen if we left them to reproduce on their own

20 Genetic Resistance Crops Bacteria

21 Limits to Natural Selection through adaptation
The genetic traits already present in the population Length of time required for reproduction to occur Bacteria vs. insects vs. elephants

22 Geologic Processes affect Natural Selection
Movement of tectonic plates Changes in climate Populations can disperse to new areas and adapt to new environmental conditions when plates come together Populations evolve under isolated conditions or become extinct when plates move apart Earthquakes and Volcanoes Climate change – Earth has cooled and warmed many times


24 Evolution of new species
Speciation One species splits into two or more different species New species are formed when organisms have evolved to a point where they can no longer successfully produce fertile offspring with members of the original species. Occurs when a barrier occurs or migration takes place which prevents the flow of genes between two or more populations of a species

25 Isolation Geographic Reproductive
When different groups of the same population become physically isolated from one another over a long period of time. Physical barriers such as mountain range, streams, roads, volcanic eruptions, winds or flowing water that carry individuals to a distant area Reproductive Natural selection occurs independently in geographically isolated populations of the same species and over time, the two populations are no longer reproductively compatible. The individuals may be able to physically mate but are unable to produce fertile offspring

26 Speciation Allopatric Speciation Sympatric Speciation
When new species arise as a result of both geographic and reproductive isolation Sympatric Speciation When new species arise in the absence of geographic isolation Generally occurs in polyploid species (most are diploid) What is diploid?



29 Sympatric Speciation of Wheat

30 Adaptation of species depends on four factors
Rate of environmental change Changes in pH of water (overnight or years) Genetic variation Greater genetic variation makes it easier for species to adapt Population size Small populations with a beneficial mutation will be able to spread the trait more quickly Generation time Short generation time = adapt more quickly

31 Genetics of Populations
Artificial selection Most grains, fruits, and vegetables Sweet corn, grapple AKC dogs Genetic Engineering GMOs Roundup resistant plants Tomatoes

32 Species Diversity and Richness
The number and variety of species an ecosystem contains Richness The number of different species Evenness The comparative numbers of individuals of each species present Deciduous forests = low species evenness Tropical forests = high species evenness

33 Species Rich Ecosystems
High species richness appears to increase the productivity and stability of an ecosystem Are less affected by drought and invasive insects Take up more CO2 and nitrogen – thereby having a greater impact on nutrient cycles

34 Hotspots Areas with large numbers of species – frequently in danger of habitat loss Islands Tropical rain forests Coral reefs Bottom of the ocean

35 Ecosystem Roles Niche The role of each organism within it’s ecosystem
Includes the specifics about the organisms requirements: food, water, sunlight, space, prey, predators, temperature range

36 Generalist vs. Specialist
Broad niches: live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions Ex. Cockroach, mice, white-tailed deer, humans Specialist Narrow niches: specific habitat, one or a few types of food, sensitive to temperature and other climate changes Advantage is less competition for their specific resources in stable environmental conditions Disadvantage: More prone to extinction Ex. Giant Pandas, Lemurs, shorebirds Extinction as a result of disrupted environmental conditions



39 Roles within Ecosystems
Native species Endemic species Non-native (invasive, alien, exotic) Many are beneficial – food crops like wheat, rice, fish (tilapia or catfish – farm raised) Harmful: African Honeybees, Kudzu, Zebra Mussels, pythons (everglades) Invasive species can be accidental (zebra mussels and fire ants) or intentionally introduced (Kudzu, European wild boars) Invasive species often lack predators, parasites or pathogens which allow their populations to explode What invasive species are everywhere? Starlings, pigeons, German cockroaches What did you think about the suggestions on p. 202 for preventing the influx of invasive species? My thoughts – need to place more restrictions on the sale of wildlife in the US, and require ships to change their ballast water – the rest not so helpful.

40 Figure 9.14: Individuals matter.
Here is a list of some ways to prevent or slow the spread of harmful invasive species. Questions: Which two of these actions do you think are the most important? Why? Which of these actions do you plan to take? Fig. 9-14, p. 203

41 Indicator Species Indicator
Species that provide early warning of danger to a community or ecosystem Birds, butterflies, amphibians Often vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation, or pesticide usage

42 Amphibians Frogs sensitive to environmental changes
Habitat loss and fragmentation Prolonged drought Increases in UV radiation Parasites Viral and fungal diseases Pollution Climate change Overhunting Invasive species Biological indicators of changes in environmental conditions, vital part of the food web, useful for medical applications including pain killing drugs

43 Keystone Species Keystone
Species whose roles have a large effect on the types and abundance of other species in an ecosystem Small number of organisms with large impact so they are frequently the top predators in an ecosystem Loss of keystone species can lead to population crashes and extinctions of other species Alligators, sea otters, sharks, pollinating insects

44 American Alligator Keystone Species Ecosystem services:
Dig gator holes (hold water during dry spells, serve as refuges for aquatic life) Build nesting mounds which later provide nesting sites for herons, egrets, and turtles Eat large numbers of gar – keeping fish populations in check Placed on endangered list 1967 due to overhunting 1977 reclassified as threatened Ecosystem services: Maintain waterways by keeping them free of vegetation

45 Foundation Species Foundation
Species that play a major role in shaping their communities by creating and enhancing habitats in ways that benefit other species Beaver, Elephant

46 Keystone or Foundation?
Sea Stars Elephant Gopher Tortoise Beaver Alligator Kelp Corals Sea Otters Grizzly Bear Prairie Dogs Gray Wolf

47 Species Interactions Competition Predation Parasitism Mutualism
Species interact to gain access to limited resources Predation Organism feeds directly on another organism Parasitism Organism feeds on another living organism, by living on or inside the host Mutualism Interaction that benefits both species Commensalism Interaction that benefits one species, but has little or no effect on the other

48 Competition Specialist vs. Generalist Niche overlap
Resource distribution – if one species is able to take over the majority of resources other species must move to another area, adapt by shifting feeding habits, or the population will decline and eventually go extinct

49 3 types of resource partitioning
Adaptations that allow species to reduce or avoid competition with other species for resources Temporal Use of different resources due to time of use Diurnal vs. nocturnal Spatial Specialized feeding areas Morphological Specialized physical adaptations (beaks, claws, use of tools etc)

50 Spatial Resource Partitioning

51 Morphological Resource Partitioning

52 4 Types of Predators The use of one species as a resource by another species True predators kill & consume their prey lions and owls Herbivores eat only part of their prey and do not kill it gazelles and deer Parasites (including pathogens) live on or in the organism they consume (the host) can live in bloodstream, intestines or other areas individual parasites rarely cause the death of the host Pathogens – virues, fungi, protists, wormlike organisms called helminths Parasitoids lay eggs inside other organisms and then the larvae eat their way out, frequently causing the death of the host Wasps and flies

53 Predator – Prey Relationship
Examples: Grizzly bear/salmon Kelp/sea urchins/sea otters Rats on islands – what happens? Methods of predation Pursuit and ambush Camouflage Poison

54 Camouflaged Predators

55 Predator – Prey Relationships
Methods to avoid Predation Protective shells or spines Regenerative parts Camouflage Poison/irritants Warning coloration Bad smell or taste (bitter) Mimicry Behavioral strategies: puffer fish, peacock One of many: flocks, herds, schools

56 Camouflaged Prey

57 Figure 5.5: These prey species have developed specialized ways to avoid their predators: (a, b) camouflage, (c–e) chemical warfare, (d, e) warning coloration, (f) mimicry, (g) deceptive looks, and (h) deceptive behavior. Fig. 5-5, p. 109

58 Predator – Prey Relationship
Predation plays a role in evolution by natural selection Animal predators tend to kill the sick, weak, aged, young, and least fit members of a population because they are the easiest to catch. This leaves behind individuals with better defenses against predation. These individuals tend to survive longer and leave more offspring with adaptations that can help them avoid predation.

59 Coevolution The predator – prey relationship drives evolution through natural selection Most effective predators produce the greatest number of offspring and most effective prey also produce the greatest number of offspring – Changes in the genetic makeup of populations is the result Ex. Bats and moths

60 A Case Study of Coevolution: Squirrels, Birds, and the Pinecones They Love
Lodgepole Pine Red Squirrel Crossbill Areas where reds squirrels are the major predator of lodgepole pine seeds, cones are heavy, wider, and contain few seeds. Areas where crossbills are the major predator (no red squirrels) of lodgepole pine seeds, cones are larger, with heavy thick scales, and more seeds. Crossbills with deeper, shorter, less curved bills are more able to get seeds from these cones…will they evolve to be the dominant form of crossbill?

61 Parasitism Parasite is usually much smaller than the host and rarely kills the host Often gradually weaken host over time Parasite can live inside (tapeworms, lungworms) or outside (fleas, ticks, ) the host

62 Mutualism Two or more species behave in ways that benefit both by providing food, shelter, or some other resource Flowers - bees, butterflies, hummingbirds Oxbirds and rhinocerous Clownfish and anemone E-coli in your gut Acacia Trees and ants Lichens – fungi/algae Coral reefs – coral and algae Each species benefits by unintentionally exploiting the other as a result of traits they obtained through natural selection.

63 Commensalism Commensalism
Interaction that benefits one species, but has little or no effect on the other Examples: Epiphytes (orchids and bromeliads) air plants Birds nesting in trees, squirrels nest in trees Barnacles on whales or scallops Remoras – hitch a ride on larger species especially whales and feed off leftover food scraps Fish hiding in coral reefs


65 Populations Population – a group of interbreeding individuals of the same species Generally live together in groups due to Availability of resources specific to their needs Better able to locate resources when in groups prey species – improved chance of survival when in large groups Better chance of hunting success for predators

66 Populations Review Four variables affect population
Births, immigration, deaths, emigration Age structure determines growth rate J-curve and S-curve Carrying capacity

67 r and k selected species

68 r and k selected reproductive patterns
r selected Many offspring, usually small, little parental care Overcome massive losses by producing many offspring k selected Larger animals, low reproductive rates, high parental care Invest in success of offspring by providing care

69 Traits of K and r selected species
K-selected r-selected Life span Long Short Time to reproductive maturity # of reproductive events Few Many # of offspring Size of offspring Large Small Parental care Present Absent Population growth rate Slow Fast Population regulation Density dependent Density independent Population dynamics Stable, near carrying capacity Highly variable


71 Limiting Factors Range of tolerance Limiting factor principle:
The limits of a range that species can tolerate; Examples: Aquatic: salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen Terrestrial: sunlight, precipitation, nutrients (N, P) Limiting factor principle: too much or too little of any physical or chemical factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near optimal range of tolerance Environmental Resistance the combination of all factors that limit the growth of a population – determines carrying capacity Limiting reagents in chemistry – s’mores lab


73 White-Tail Deer Discussion
Should we increase the number of deer hunted each year in order to decrease car-deer collisions? Which is more inhumane – hunting or allowing a population crash (starvation)? What should be done about deer eating expensive plants? What do you think about birth control for deer? Male and female deer? Should we reintroduce large predators, wolves and mountain lions? What is the flaw in “hunting as population control” argument? What is the flaw in birth control for deer argument?

74 Carrying capacity and population crashes
When a population suffers a sharp decline or dieback Carrying capacity is not fixed, it can be affected seasonally or yearly based on environmental factors such as prey/predator abundance, precipitation, or weather conditions Wolves and moose of Isle Royale


76 Population Characteristics
Size (N) total number of individuals within a defined area Density The number of individuals in a population found in a particular area Distribution How individuals are distributed w/ respect to one another Sex Ratio Ratio of males to females (# of females is more import) Age Structure Predication of population growth

77 Population Density High Population density Density dependent controls
Improve chances of finding a mate, provide protection from predation, increases competition for resources, increases threat from disease Density dependent controls Influence an individual’s probability of survival and reproduction based on the population density Parasitism, infectious disease, resource competition Keep the population near the carrying capacity Density independent controls Impact regardless of population size or density Weather, natural disasters, pollution, habitat destruction

78 Population Distribution
Random distribution No pattern to the location of the individuals Trees in a forest Uniform distribution Individuals are evenly spaced Tree plantations or nesting gannets Clumped distribution Organisms frequently live in large groups Schooling fish, flocking birds, herding mammals


80 Patterns of population change
Stable At or near carrying capacity for long time periods Irruptive Grow to a high peak then crash (algae, insects) Cyclic Rise and fall in cycles of years or decades (lemmings, lynx, snowshoe hares) Irregular No rhyme or reason for variations


82 Survivorship Curves Type I – convex curve
Most individuals live to adulthood, with mortality occurring with old age K-selected species Elephants, whales, humans

83 Survivorship Curves Type II – A straight line
Relatively constant decline in survivorship throughout their natural life span. The individuals chance of dying is independent of age Species that are neither strongly K-selected nor strongly r-selected Squirrels, corals, birds

84 Survivorship Curves Type III – concave curve
Few individuals survive to adulthood, but then the chance of dying decreasing with age r-selected species Plants, insects, oysters, rodents, algae


86 Ecological Succession
The normally gradual change in species composition in a given area Primary ecological succession First establishment of biotic community Secondary ecological succession Secondary establishment of biotic community in an ecosystem that has been disturbed by natural or human forces

87 Primary ecological succession
The gradual establishment of biotic communities where there is no soil in a terrestrial ecosystem or no bottom sediment in an aquatic ecosystem Bare rock from retreating glaciers, cooled lava, abandoned highway or parking lot, newly created ponds or reservoirs Hundreds to thousands of years Lichens and mosses are pioneer species

88 Primary Succession

89 Secondary ecological succession
A series of communities or ecosystems with different species develop in places containing soil or bottom sediment Occurs in areas that have been disturbed, removed, or destroyed, but some soil or bottom sediment remains Examples: abandoned farmland, burned or cut forests, polluted waterways, flooded land Succession is a continuous event, ecosystems are in a constant state of change due to the continuous struggle of species to achieve enough resources Climax Community: last stage of succession, dominated by a few long-lived plant species in balance w/ other aspects of the environment Climax community is not the final stage because ecosystems can be reset at any point.

90 Secondary Succession

91 Aquatic Succession

92 Persistence vs. resilience
the ability of a living system to survive moderate disturbances Resilience The ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a more severe disturbance Tropical rain forests High persistence, low resilience Grasslands Low persistence, high resilience

93 Extinction Background extinction rate Mass extinction
The process by which an entire species ceases to exist (biological extinction) or a population of a species becomes extinct over a large region, but not globally (local extinction). Background extinction rate The natural low rate of species extinction over time Mass extinction The extinction of many species in a relatively short period of geologic time 5 mass extinctions recorded in the fossil record Currently undergoing the 6th (2-25% of all species are expected to become extinct by 2020) this one is considered to be caused by humans Mass extinctions causes: climate change, asteroid collisions, volcanic eruptions What are some possible causes of extinction?

94 Extinction Rates Extinction rate
The percentage or number of species that go extinct within a certain period of time Rates are rapidly rising due to human influences including: habitat destruction, pollution, Extinction rate may rise to 1% per year which would lead to the loss of ¼ of the biodiversity currently on the planet Focusing conservation efforts on hotspots is considered the best and quickest way to slow extinction rates It will take 5 – 10 million years to replace the lost diversity

95 Endangered and Threatened Species
Has so few remaining individuals that the species could soon become extinct Polar bears, sea otters, California condor, whooping crane, almost all big cats, red wolf Threatened (vulnerable) Still has enough remaining individuals to survive in the short term, but because of declining numbers, it is likely to become extinct in the near future Carolina parakeet, passenger pigeon – hunted to extinction



98 Reasons to prevent extinctions
Species diversity are essential to provide the planets life support services Ecosystem services Nutrient cycling, pollination, flood control etc. Economic value Value as ecotourism and for medicines Ethical right of species to exist How do we decide which species or areas to protect? Polar bears vs. mussels or tigers vs. random tropical plants?

99 HIPPCO Causes of endangerment and extinction listed in order of importance H – Habitat Destruction, degradation, fragmentation I – Invasive or non-native species P – Population growth and increasing use of resources P – Pollution C – Climate change O – overexploitation of resources Areas of greatest rate of extinction: tropical forests, coral reefs, wetlands and grassland destruction, pollution of bodies of water, and islands (63% of Hawaiian species at risk) Birds H = habitat destruction, degradation, fragmentation – destruction of breeding habitats, and loss of wetlands I = invasive species such as mongoose, rats, snakes, cats (feral and domestic) P = Population growth (skyscrapers, cell towers, power lines = kill millions of birds each year) P = pollution - oil spills, pesticides and herbicides, lead poisoning from shotgun pellets and lead sinkers C = climate change O = overexploitation – parrots are captured for wildlife trade, destruction of fishing stocks endanger seabirds

100 Habitat Fragmentation
When a large, intact, area of habitat such as a forest or natural grassland is divided, typically by roads, logging operations, crop fields, and urban development into smaller isolated patches or “habitat islands” Blocks animal migration routes, isolates groups making them more vulnerable to predators, resource competition, disease etc. Habitat islands include national parks, nature reserves, and freshwater lakes which are frequently surrounded by detrimental human activities


102 Human contributions to species endangerment
Human population growth will lead to ever increasing threats to species Habitat destruction, degradation, fragmentation Pollution Wildlife trade (live and body parts) Bush meat Pesticide use Bioaccumulation Biomagnification Bioaccumulation:increase in concentration of a pollutant from the environment to the first organism in a food chain Biomagnification:increase in concentration of a pollutant from one link in a food chain to another


104 Treaties and Laws Lacey Act Passed in 1900
Protects plants and wildlife the Act prohibits trade in wildlife, fish, and plants that have been illegally taken, possessed, transported or sold There is some disparity in the application of the act for plants vs. animals The disparity between the Lacey Act's application to wildlife and its application to plants becomes most apparent when considering the types of importation activity the Act addresses. For example, the importation of cockatoo eggs, bear parts, a tiger skeleton, salmon, or live snakes in violation of customs laws is an automatic felony violation of the Lacey Act. [FN192] However, the Act cannot be used to prosecute the importation of an equally endangered orchid or pitcher plant species taken from a foreign rain forest. This is a serious deficiency in the current Lacey Act.

105 Treaties and laws Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Signed by 175 countries bans the hunting, capturing, and selling of threatened or endangered species (lists 900 species), restricts international trade of approximately 5000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants Of limited value due to lack of enforcement, convictions lead to small fines, member countries can exempt themselves from any listed species, and most illegal wildlife trade occurs in countries that did not sign the treaty IUCN maintains a list of threatened species known as the Red List

106 Treaties and Laws cont. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
3 objectives Conserve biodiversity Sustainably use biodiversity Equitably share the benefits that emerge from the commercial use of genetic resources such as pharmaceutical drugs Constitutes a legal commitment by ratifying countries Focuses on ecosystems rather than individual species Ratified by 191 countries (excludes US, Iraq, Somalia, Andorra) Implementation has been slow No severe penalties or enforcement mechanisms In 2010 the convention evaluated the progress made and the results were dismal: at-risk species have moved closer to extinction, habitat fragmentation and loss is ↑, genetic diversity is ↓, ecological footprint of humans is ↑, ecosystem functioning ↓ US refused to sign citing concerns over intellectual property rights and financial obligations

107 Treaties and Laws cont. Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA)
Was designed to identify and protect endangered species in the United States and abroad The most far-reaching environmental law ever adopted by any nation NMFS and USFWS were tasked with identifying and listing all threatened and endangered species without consideration of economic or political factors Develop recovery plans and can consider economic factors in deciding what and how to protect species

108 ESA continued Makes it illegal for Americans to sell or buy any product made from an endangered or threatened species, or to hunt, kill, collect , or injure any such species in the United States. Originally listed 92 species, 1,370 species were listed in 2010 Endangered and Threatened Species Endangered species map

109 ESA continued Controversy Affects private landowners
Economic costs ($ 0.09/citizen/year) Significant successes 50%+ of listed species are stable or improving 99% of protected species are still surviving Alligator, gray wolf, peregrine falcon, bald eagle, brown pelican

110 Preserving Genetic Diversity
Gene or seed banks Captive breeding Egg pulling Artificial insemination, embryo transfer, incubators and cross fostering Captive population of endangered species should number 100 – 500 in order to avoid extinction due to disease 10,000 individuals are required for a species to maintain its capacity for biological evolution Genetic diversity includes crops and livestock as well as wild plants and animals

111 Precautionary Principle
When substantial preliminary evidence suggests harm to human health or the environment, we should take precautionary measures to prevent or reduce such harm even if some of the cause and effect relationships have not been fully established scientifically Basis of the Convention on Biological Diversity 3 Q’s How do we allocate limited resources b/w protecting species and protecting their habitats? How do we decided which species or areas should get the most resources? How do we determine which habitat areas are the most critical to protect?

112 Interesting Cases California Condor Southern Sea Otter
Vultures/wild dogs/rabies Honeybees Condor – 100,000 per condor is it worth it? With only 350 condors remaining – have they lost their ability to evolve and if so should be try to save them? Sea Otter – eat urchins which in turn protect kelp beds which in turn provides shelter and food for hundreds of other species Vultures – cows fed a drug to decrease inflammation – killed vultures = increased wild dogs due to increase cow carcasses = increased incidence of rabies = 30,000 deaths from rabies in a single year

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