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The Phytofilter Technologies Institute

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1 The Phytofilter Technologies Institute
Provider # An Alternative To Mass Ventilation First Discovered By NASA Course # PT Presenter: Martin Mittelmark September 25, 2013

2 1.5 LU/HSW Credits earned on completion of this course will be reported to AIA CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This course is registered with AIA CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. _______________________________________

3 The Phytofilter Technologies Institute
Copyright Materials This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. However reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation is given to attendees of this course and their firms so that they may show, it, or parts of it, to their clients and prospective clients as relates to a particular architectural project they have in mind , and as long as the materials presented have with it the name The Phytofilter Technologies Institute as the material’s originator clearly displayed on the last slide of the presentation along with the institute’s address and telephone number.

4 Course Description This course talks about the different pollutants within poor indoor air and their consequences & discusses an alternate strategy, devised by NASA to deal with them in place of mass ventilation. It is perhaps one of the greatest discoveries of all time and can well change everything; improve health and save vast quantities of energy as we heat and cool our buildings.  The course itself provides information on phytofilter technology.  It defines what it is, shows how it works and talks of its many benefits, Plus it provides information on various government and utility programs which pay for its installation, so building owners and architects can often have it installed at no cost; so they can gain additional LEED points, and enhance sustainability, increase property values and improve the quality of life of building inhabitants.  

5 Learning Objectives At the end of the this course, 1. The participant will be able to describe and apply a technique out of NASA which will allow the architect to gain in Leed points on a project .  Plus be able to reduce ventilation needs of a building. 2. It will allow the participant to discuss with an architect or engineer a method which can reduce or completely eliminate formaldehyde from indoor air as well as reduce other VOC contamination; 3. Cut down on biological and ionizing radiation contamination within an indoor environment; & 4. Incorporate natural air purification techniques into a building which are both energy and labor efficient so as to improve worker health and their quality of life.  I

6 OUTLINE 1. Why ventilation 2
OUTLINE 1. Why ventilation 2. Different types of contaminants found in indoor air. Which ones we do a poor job of dealing with 3. The results of the status quo 4. NASA’s Great Discovery which can eliminate the need for mass ventilation 5. How this discovery can be placed in buildings with no up front expense. 6. How installing such a system within a project can affect as many as 39 LEED Points. 7. What the system looks like 8. Question and Answers

7 What is the main way we deal with poor indoor quality air today within structures ?
Ventilation is it not?

8 Ventilation is the process of "changing" or replacing indoor air with out door air in any space so as to strive to provide for high indoor air quality. Why Do We Use It? Because of the build up of pollutants or poisons within an indoor space which can adversely effect its inhabitants, & to supply those inhabitants with a continual source of fresh air and an adequate amount of oxygen.

It wastes energy. It often brings in contaminated outdoor air into the interior space. It doesn’t remove poisons and pollutants quickly enough, since we take in a new breath of air every 3-6 seconds.

10 We Also Use Ventilation
Because nature’s air purifiers are primarily found outdoors.








18 And We Also Use It Because We have Used it for Thousands of Years.
In other words, it’s the Accepted Way to Deal With Poor Indoor Air Quality


20 Now If There were a Way to Deal With Indoor Air Pollution Within a Sructure Then We Wouldn’t have to use ventilation, Or Use It As Much. It is this Excessive Use of Ventilation that we define as “Mass Ventilation”.

21 Air Pollution is not caused by a single source or contaminant.
Rather it is a combination of different pollutants. And unless you get rid of all the different pollutants and all the different categories of pollutants you have to ventilate. Why?

22 Why We Use Ventilation Air pollution is such, that because of the laws of physics, airborne contaminants disperse themselves evenly throughout our entire air supply, especially in a confined space. Thus we have to remove the entire air supply and replace it if we can’t purify the air sufficiently. And so we mainly rely on ventilation because we haven’t taken care of all pollutants in indoor air.

23 Types of Indoor Pollutants
Particulate Matter, *Chemicals or VOCs like formaldehyde, *Biologicals—Germs, Viruses, Mold, Dust Mites, Pet Dander & Pollen; *Ionizing Radiation—Radon, Nuclear Reactor Emissions & Cigarette Smoke; Odor & Carbon Dioxide & Carbon Monoxide.



26 It is continually occurring & unless the air supply within a building is purified or revitalized, ventilation is the only alternative (at least until now). Now the contaminant categories we do a poor job attending to within indoor air are: VOCs Biologicals, & Ionizing Radiation.

27 What are VOCs? Volatile organic compounds (From Oxford English Dictionary)
Volatile - easily evaporated at normal temperatures Organic - relating to or denoting compounds containing carbon and chiefly or ultimately of biological origin Compounds - substance formed from two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions


29 VOCs are also Emitted by Thousands of Products In our Workplaces or Homes
paints, lacquers and strippers cleaning supplies pesticides building materials, carpeting and furnishings office equipment such as copiers and printers, especially new things correction fluids and carbonless copy paper graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers photographic solutions Fuel

30 Maximum Emission Rate (ug/hour/m2)
Relative Emission Rates Product Maximum Emission Rate (ug/hour/m2) Oil paints Ceiling tile 12 000 Wood veneer Dry cleaning 10 000 Water-based paint 9 000 Photocopier 7000 Carpet 6 000 Floor wax 1 000

31 VOC Emissions Vs. Age (ug/hour/m2 of total VOCs)
Product 1 Hour 1 Day 1 Week 1 Month 1 Year Adhesives 400 100 < 1 Carpet 600 80 20 10 5 Wood floor 1 000 900 3 Oil-based paints Water-based paints 50 000 40 000 20 000 200

32 But while some VOCs dissipate quickly, others emit or off-gas heavy doses of carcinogens or toxic pollutants for as long as 5 years or more.

33 What are the health effects of VOC exposure?
Acute Eye irritation / watering Nose irritation Throat irritation Headaches Nausea / Vomiting Dizziness Asthma exacerbation Chronic Cancer Liver damage Kidney damage Central Nervous System damage

34 Some of the Products in a Structure which Emit Formaldehyde

35 Formaldehyde is a substance so toxic that were it to make up just one part per billion of air itself, it would have exceeded the lifetime chronic exposure level, determined by the EPA, as set forth in its draft Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde Inhalation Assessment Report, of June 2010 Yet more than 6 ½ lbs of the material is manufactured each year for every man, woman and child on the planet and placed into thousands of products which off-gas toxic fumes into the air.


37 Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation is radiation composed of particles that individually can liberate an electron from an atom or molecule and produce ions with a net electric charge. They come from electromagnetic radiation with frequencies in excess of those in visible light. X-rays and gamma rays are examples of electromagnetic ionizing radiation. Alpha and Beta particles, positrons and neutrons are examples of particulate ionizing radiation.

38 The Main Ionizing Radiation Sources which Pollute Indoor Air
Radon, Low level radiation emissions from nuclear power plants, & Cigarette Smoke.


40 Radon Radon is a heavy gas that is produced from the breakdown of uranium, which is present in soil, rock & water. It tends to collect in basements or other low places in structures, but is dispersed throughout the house via the stack effect and an HVAC sysem. It has no color, odor, or taste. the Surgeon General of the United States has warned that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States today.




44 Epithelial change caused by an alpha particle emission from a radon daughter.

45 Every Pica Curie per liter of radon within a structure produces 7 alpha particle impacts within the average adult’s lungs every second. So 4 pCl/L would cause 28 such impacts per second. A 4 pCl/L radon level in a structure is the equivalent of an adult getting 200 chest X rays every year according to the EPA.



48 The EPA postulates that the entire U. S
The EPA postulates that the entire U.S. population suffers 21,000-45,000 deaths a year due to radon.

49 The medical community nationwide only became aware of the possible extent of radon being a problem in 1984. That year a nuclear plant worker in Pennsylvania discovered radioactivity on his clothing when exiting the plant which was set off via the radiation detectors at the plant The source of the radiation was determined to be radon decay products on his clothing originating from his home.

50 Although some regions of the U. S
Although some regions of the U.S. have higher levels of radon than others, elevated levels of radon have been found in homes in all 50 states Yet the U.S. does not demand that a building owner put in radon mitigating equipment, & Unlike other countries the U.S. has no requirements even to test public buildings or schools for radon.



53 Low Level Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants
Damage from high linear energy transfer (LET) exposure at low levels over extended periods of time from alpha particles show the highest rates of thyroid cancer in the country are in thirteen (13) of 18 counties. Some of which are found in New York and others in the contiguous states of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 11 of these counties lie within 90 miles of 40 degrees 20’ north latitude, 75 degrees 20’ west longitude. This area has 16 nuclear power reactors, 13 of which are still operating, at seven plants. No area of the U.S. has as great a concentration of reactors. And while the average in the U.S. of cases per 100,000 population of thyroid cancer is 8.9. These counties have almost double the amount of cases or more per 100,000 of population.


55 Living near a nuclear facility increases your chances of dying from breast cancer by ten fold.
A nationwide survey of 268 counties within 50 miles of 51 nuclear reactors, found breast cancer deaths in these "nuclear counties" to be 10 times the national rate from 1950 to


57 Cigarette Smoke is Laced with Ionizing Radiation
Almost 95% of the Lung Cancer caused by cigarette smoking, or second hand smoke, is allegedly the result of calcium phosphate fertilizer used to grow the Tobacco. The resulting Cigarettes bear a combination of local Radon gasses and radioactive Polonium from the Tobacco leaves. These deposit a small dose of radioactive isotopes directly into a smoker's lungs, or onto the lungs of others who breathe in second hand smoke.

58 For the "pack-a-day" smoker, it has been alleged that this dose would be the same as if you were forced to have between 300 and 8000 Chest X-Rays a year.

59 Biological Airborne Contaminants
Germs, Viruses, Mold, Dust Mites, Pet Dander &Pollen



62 Colds and flu are often spread when you inhale infected droplets in the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes . A cough or sneeze spreads both large & small infected droplets into the air and while the larger ones remain airborne for only a few seconds, the smaller ones can remain airborne for hours or even days and can be widely dispersed by air currents within a building or through the HVAC system. Further researchers found that in certain indoor environments a typical cubic metre of air contained an average of 16,000 particles of flu virus in the winter, & It was found that 1 in 4 people do not cover their mouth or nose when they cough or sneeze.


64 The Number of Colds Each Person Gets Per Year
Each adult averages 2-4 colds per year & Each child has 6-10 colds per year,

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 35 to 50 million Americans come down with the flu each flu season. Chicken pox, influenza, small pox, tuberculosis, SARS and whooping cough are but a few of the conditions that can be contracted through airborne transmission.

66 The Aerosol Effect from Toilets
When a toilet is flushed and the water swirls around before the bowl empties, it creates a fine aerosol mist which remains for up to two hours after each flush, contaminating everything in a typical bathroom, including toothbrushes and drinking glasses.

67 And during that two hour period after each flush, there is more than enough time for this bacterial mist to float about and spread, infecting an entire building’s air supply; with no protection afforded inhabitants, even if there is a separate ventilator fan, since people are continually opening the door of the bathroom area, or leaving it open, and then passing into other parts of the building.

68 Resulting in these airborne particles entering our lungs, as we inhale, which could at best cause us to contract a cough or cold, or at worst infect us with streptococcus, staphylococcus, E. coli and shigella bacteria, or even hepatitis A virus. Which are all common inhabitants of bathrooms-- especially public bathrooms.


70 How Many People in America Get Hay Fever?
There are 23.7 million cases of hay fever reported annually. While 60 million Americans suffer from allergies and asthma.

71 The Short Comings to Each Method of Air Purification
Usually most methods of taking care of poor indoor quality air only deal with one pollutant and when we use them they have consequences which give rise to other problems, Or short comings which can be dangerous in and of themselves.



74 Germicidal U.V. Light in Air Ducts

75 The consequences of indoor Air Pollution


77 Just under one out of every two men and women in this country come down with an invasive form of cancer (41.21%), in good part due to poor indoor quality air.


79 GOING OUTSIDE THE BOX There are technologies in existence which could remove indoor pollutants that are not now being used because of their shortcomings.


81 But they also remove formaldehyde.
How? When formaldehyde comes in contact with water it forms methylene glycol. waterwater it forms methylene glycol So if we had a wet scrubber within a building So if formaldehyde laden air passes through a wet scrubber formaldehyde is removed from the air. But unfortunately wet scrubbers also increase humidity which can give rise to mold.

82 Plants

83 Plants Convert Carbon Dioxide to Oxygen

84 Plants & Root Microbes digest volatile organic chemicals,
Plus plants take in radioactive elements thru their roots from the soil, mistaking them for food, Where its trapped and encapsulated in root tissue so harmful alpha and beta particles, that are emitted, can’t harm humans. Plants encapsulate radioactive elements in concentrations up to 6,000 times that found in the soil. Plants were used to remediate highly radioactive soil at Chernobyl after the nuclear meltdown.



87 The Catalyst When you have an unsatisfactory status quo,
As in the case of indoor air remediation; When alternate technologies might do the job better but have shortcomings, Usually a catalyst propels a change. Which can be an event or a person. In the 1980’s it was both.

88 NASA’s Difficulty in the 1980’s
It was trying to find a way to purify air for long term habitat in outer space. It couldn’t use ventilation since space had no air, And bringing replacement air up in a space ship was impractical.

89 One of the Key Personal at NASA
Dr. B. C. Wolverton was a senior scientist at NASA who was a physicist, chemist and a biologist all at the same time. He had worked with Brownfield remediation, with toxic spills and been involved in chemical warfare. He saw how nature both remediated air & soil In an ongoing process.

90 So Dr. Wolverton decided he would go back to basics and see how nature actually purified air;
Whether there were certain environments where most natural air purifiers were absent, Which ones remained, & If there were environments that closely resembled an enclosed spaceship or a building.

91 What Dr. Wolverton Found
A habitat --the tropical rain forest—which was: Devoid of wind, Devoid of direct sunlight, Where there was significant soil moisture & limited nourishment. An environment which was hostile & fiercely competitive for any source of nourishment. Where alliances had to be formed to make survival possible, & Where plants and root microbes were found in abundance which worked together.

92 He also found that in these environments plants excreted certain substances root microbes needed;
And that root microbes would attack all predators to the plant including cold germs & flu virus; Would break down leaf matter, destroy mold spores, kill airborne microbes & Use these airborne microbes as a source of food; After which the friendly microbes’ waste would serve as food for the plants.

93 He also noticed that plants would take in airborne toxins through their leaves and transport them down their stems to their roots where they would excrete them out so the soil microbes could digest them. Plus he noticed that these plants were creating a suction effect when they transpired moisture through their leaves which was drawing contaminated air down into the soil, which the root microbes then purified.

94 And at this point he realized a great truth:
“That the plants were mainly acting as a transport mechanism while the root microbes were performing most of the air purifying work”.

95 Formulating of His Hypothesis
If he could grow these same plants in porous soil and put an induction fan below it, would he not then be able to get a hundred times more air down to the root microbes? And would not those root microbes multiply according to their food supply? And if this were done then could not one plant do the work of a hundred?


97 Dr. Wolverton’s first plant air purifier used granulated carbon as the filter and regular potting soil as an additional growing medium, But he improved on this by switching to activated carbon and expand shale or clay Which further improved porosity and increased contaminant removal, while further reducing odor.

98 With this first prototype Dr
With this first prototype Dr. Wolverton had overcome the space problem, for now only a few plants could be placed inside a structure to take care of most of the poor indoor quality air problems within, while still leaving room for humans. & With that done, other technologies could be brought in that would overcome each other’s shortcomings. For this he became the “Federal Environmental Engineer of the Year – 1983” and was inducted into the NASA Hall of Fame.


100 Advantages of the PAP System
Finding from the EPA/NYSERDA $450,000 study Total Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in indoor air, including formaldehyde, are dealt with. There is a high single pass efficiency of 40-70% for removal of common and harmful volatile organic chemicals; The system needs no replacement of its filter and performs as a fully automated operation; Each average-sized house plant in a PAP can service 500 sq. ft. of living space. 1 sq. ft. of filter space takes care of 435 sq. ft. of a building’s floor space. It reduces ventilation by 80%; Saves on energy for heating by 26% & Provides energy saving of 10-15% on heating and cooling combined (without added energy savings that can occur by increasing relative humidity in the winter in a building with a PAP). Plus the system improves indoor surroundings with decorative living house plants.

101 Simulation for an entire year using Energy Plus with climate date for Syracuse NY

102 Energy Plus Simulation of Link Hall Syracuse University

103 Energy Plus Simulation of Link Hall Syracuse University as if in NYC

104 We talked previously among other things about how a wet scrubber removed contaminants from the air and how the phytofilter allowed the wet scrubber to be used indoors because it takes care of mold, but we never talked about how the phytofilter’s wet scrubber--its filter bed-- provides for: greater comfort in a building in the winter, how it improves the health of its inhabitants during that season and how it allows the thermostat to be set at a lower temperature and still attain human comfort. This section deals with these elements which are additional advantages of a Phytofilter System.

105 Makes A Building Far more Comfortable in Winter
Phytofilters have the ability to increase relative humidity within a structure. Relative humidity: The percentage of moisture in the air compared to the actual amount of moisture that air can hold. Looking on the next chart you can see how low the relative humidity of air in a building becomes, especially in winter once outside air is brought inside through mass ventilation & then heated.

106 Saturation Vapor Pressure (mbar, millibar, mb)
If outside air is fully saturated, in other words it has 100% relative humidity, at 0 degrees F. & then is taken in through the ventilation duct and heated to 70 degrees F., the relative humidity of that same air decreases to 6% (1.5/25) If outside air has 100% relative humidity at 30 degrees F. & is drawn into a building and heated to 70 degrees, its relative humidity drops down to 22.4% (5.6/25). Thus indoor air in a building is often lower in winter than what a person would experience if he were in the Sahara Desert where average relative humidity is 25% . Such a situation does not make for human comfort. Temperature Saturation Vapor Pressure (mbar, millibar, mb) (oC) (oF) -18 1.5 -15 5 1.9 -12 10 2.4 -9 15 3.0 -7 20 3.7 -4 25 4.6 -1 30 5.6 2 35 6.9 4 40 8.4 7 45 10.3 50 12.3 13 55 14.8 16 60 17.7 18 65 21.0 21 70 25.0 24 75 29.6

107 Most buildings in winter have very dry air:
because they lack humidifiers, Which are high maintenance and give rise to mold; & because they take in winter air from outdoors and simply heat it. But if a building installs a plant air purifier, relative humidity can be increased in winter because indoor air is continually able to pass through the phytofilter’s moist filter bed, where it picks up needed moisture without any added danger of mold.

108 With indoor air having a necessary level of moisture or relative humidy which Phytofilters provide inhabitants are protected from having: Sore Throats Dry & Itchy Skin & Dried Out Mucus Membranes, Which Lead to Increased Susceptibility to Colds and Flu, & an Increase in Airborne Viruses and Germs Further, cold and flu germs and viruses actually increase When Relative Humidity is Not between 47-60% which a phytofilter system can provide.

109 Plus, Low Relative Humidity, also Increases the Need to Raise Temperature, if Inhabitants Are to be Kept Comfortable.

110 F Here, by looking at the chart we see, if we increase relative humidity in an indoor environment in winter, we can lower the thermostat & save on energy, leaving people feeling just as comfortable (as this chart from ASHRAE demonstrates). Increased Relative Humidity in the Winter results in a building owner increasing his profit, since energy use (for heating) is decreased by about 3% for each degree F. drop in temperature. Thus, A commercial building could save as much as 7 ½ % on heating by raising the relative humidity from % , while dropping temperature by only 2 ½ degrees. Plant Air Purifiers Allow This to Occur.

111 And This Savings when added to the 26% On Heating Which Occurred in the 3 yr. Syracuse Study Thru Reduced Ventilation Needs, results in A PLANT AIR PURIFIER BEING ABLE TO REDUCE A BUILDING’S ENERGY USE BY A FULL ONE-THIRD ON HEATING & > ½% ON HEATING & COOLING COMBINED WHEN ADJUSTING RELATIVE HUMIDITY FOR OPTIMUM HUMAN COMFORT.

112 Plant Air Purifiers Also Provide Hotels And Resorts With A Dream Come True.
For People Pay More For A Room That Is Allergy Free & Plant Air Purifiers Can Accomplish the Task.

113 And If You Have Any Doubt About Their Effectiveness in This Regard, Here Is a Letter From An Allergy Doctor Who Utilized a Portable Plant Air Purifier in His Own Home, Which Is Not Nearly As Effective As a Unit That Can Take Care Of An Entire Building.


115 Additional Benefits of a Phytofilter System
They Can: Improve human comfort, Increase student or worker productivity, Lower health insurance premiums, Reduce employee turnover, Reduce sick days taken, Or disability occurring. Plus they can increase the value of a building, Increase its occupancy rate, & Lead to higher rents. While also increasing the bottom line.

116 Now in the remaining time I’m going to talk about what a phytofilter system cost.
I’m going to show you how a building owner can often install such a system without laying out any money; Then I’m going to discuss how putting in such a system will increase the LEED points the project will obtain; Followed by drawings and photographs of how the phytofilter system can actually look in a building; After which I will answer any questions you might have.

117 A Phytofilter System’s Cost & Payback
Cost of a phytofilter system is approximately $1.00 per sq. ft. of habitable space serviced (on projects over 10,000 sq. ft.) before rebates But after rebates, Cost is approximately ½ cents per sq. ft.; With payback from energy savings alone averaging 6 ½ years, While all the other health benefits are provided for free. & given that employers spend 10 times more on employee salaries than energy, those other benefits are a big plus.

118 Various Methods of Financing Up Front Costs of a Phytofilter System Installation

119 Who is investing in Energy Saving Retrofits which can include Phytofilters
Businesses Paying Outright to upgrade their installations, Lending Institutions, University Endowment Funds, Investors, Municipalities & Their Authorities & Utilities. WHY? Because the pay back is so rapid. (The Rockefeller foundation and Deutsche Bank found that improved efficiency of the nation’s pre-1980 building stock of 30% would result in $1 trillion dollars of energy savings over 10 years with an upfront investment of just $279 billion dollars, and would generate a simple return on investment of 358% over a decade 

120 Financing Incentives for Energy Saving Retrofits, Including Installations of Phytofilter Technology Systems Federal Incentives—extra depreciation allowances under the Energy Efficient Building Tax Deduction (26 USC 179D) up to $1.80 per square ft. Depending On The State: Utility and Authority Rebates Mandates by municipalities that buildings get an energy rating. Credit enhancing mechanisms Pace Financing Energy Insurance Warranties

121 Length of Loans Where Utilities or Municipal Authorities are Involved
Massachusettes –7 years New York- 10 years Connecticut-20 years While 30 states and the District of Columbia have instituted PACE which allow for up to a 20 year loan And the length of these loans provide for a positive carry for the building owner.

122 NYSERDA’S Energy Upgrade Program For Not-For-Profits & Small Business
NYSERDA & Various Co-operating Lending Institutions Will Provide Up to $100,000 For Energy Upgrades to a Building. The Energy Savings Along Will Be Able To Pay Off The Cost Of Installation Over A 10 Year Period. Organizations Will Enjoy A Positive Monthly Carry. & Under The Program A Free Energy Audit Will Be Conducted To Tell Them What Type of Energy Upgrades Are Most Suitable for Their Building.

123 Available Upgrades Can Include
Plant Air Purification, High Efficiency Lighting, Insulation, HVAC, Etc.

124 Certain Energy Upgrades Have a Very Short Payback
And By Coupling One Or More Of These with Plant Air Purification With The Client Is Guaranteed A Positive Carry

125 Plus Plant Air Purifiers Provide you with the Opportunity to Increase LEED Points for a Building
Phytofilter Systems directly or indirectly deal with categories which effect as many as 39 LEED Points (under LEED 2009 for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance) Our current building stock is dominated by older, inefficient buildings where as many as 72% of U.S. buildings are over 20 years old. Each year 5 billion square feet of existing buildings are renovated—equal to the yearly total square footage of new construction.

126 39 Leed Points are considerable when you consider how many LEED points are necessary for LEED certification or for a higher rating Certified 40–49 points Silver 50–59 points Gold 60–79 points Platinum 80 points and above

127 Categories Of LEED Certification Where Phytofilter Systems Can Make a Difference
SS Credit 6: Stormwater Quantity Control point WE Credit 3: Water Efficient Landscaping –5 points EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Efficiency Performance –18 points EA Credit 2.1: Existing Building Commissioning —Investigation and Analysis points EA Credit 2.2: Existing Building Commissioning —Implementation points EA Credit 6: Emissions Reduction Reporting point IEQ Credit 1.1: Indoor Air Quality Best Management Practices—Indoor Air Quality Management Program point IEQ Credit 2.1: Occupant Comfort—Occupant Survey point IO Credit 1: Innovation in Operations –4 points RP Credit 1: Regional Priority –4 Points Maximum Points

128 SS Credit 6: Stormwater Quantity Control 1 Point
“Use Low Impact Development (LID)1 practices to capture and treat water from 25% of the impervious surfaces for the 95th percentile of regional or local rainfall events”. Potential Technologies & Strategies: “Non-structural techniques (e.g., rain gardens, vegetated swales) Use storm water for non potable uses such as landscape irrigation, toilet and urinal flushing, and custodial uses”. Here rainwater can be used to irrigate the Plant Air Purifier’s filter bed since the plants therein and the root microbes would function better using a water source without chlorine or chloramines.  

129 WE Credit 3: Water Efficient Landscaping 1–5 points
Intent “To limit or eliminate the use of potable water1, or other natural surface or subsurface resources available on or near the project site, for landscape irrigation”. Requirements “Reduce potable water or other natural surface or subsurface resource consumption for irrigation compared with conventional means of irrigation. For buildings without vegetation or other ecologically appropriate features on the grounds, points can be earned by reducing the use of potable water for watering any roof and/or courtyard garden space or outdoor planters, provided the planters and/or garden space cover at least 5% of the building site area (including building footprint, hardscape area, parking footprint, etc). If the planters and/or garden space cover less than 5% of the building site area, the project is ineligible for this credit”. Here the plant air purifier systems might be used in conjunction with roof gardens to meet the minimum 5%.

130 EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Efficiency Performance 1–18 points
Intent: “To achieve increasing levels of operating energy performance relative to typical buildings of similar type to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with excessive energy use”. Requirements “CASE 1. Projects Eligible for Energy Star Rating Achieve energy efficiency performance better than the minimum requirements”; Phytofilters reduce energy consumption for heating & cooling combined by ½% EPA ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Rating Points 71 1 73 2 74 3 75 4 76 5 77 6 78 7 79 8 80 9 81 10 82 11 83 12 85 13 87 14 89 15 91 16 93 17 95 18

131 EA Credit 2.1: Existing Building Commissioning —Investigation and Analysis 2 points
“OPTION 1. Commissioning Process Develop a retrocommissioning, or ongoing commissioning plan for the building’s major energy-using systems. Conduct the investigation and analysis phase. Document the breakdown of energy use in the building. & in each List the operating problems that affect occupants’ comfort and energy use, and develop potential operational changes that will solve them & list the identified capital improvements that will provide cost-effective energy savings and document the cost-benefit analysis associated with each”. Here can be listed how the phytofilter system brings added comfort in winter by adding relative humidity, removes allergy and asthma triggers, prevents mold and saves on energy.

132 EA Credit 2.2: Existing Building Commissioning—Implementation 2 points
“Potential Technologies & Strategies Implement no- and low-cost operational improvements that will immediately enhance building performance. Develop a capital plan for the completion of any major retrofits identified through the investigation and analysis phase”. Here you can install the phytofilter system in the building and by getting a low interest loan with the assistance of a state or municipal authority or a lending institution, the energy savings will meet the monthly payment plus leave a positive carry besides, while enhancing building performance.

133 EA Credit 6: Emissions Reduction Reporting 1 point
“Intent To document the emissions reduction benefits of building efficiency measures. Requirements Identify building performance parameters that reduce conventional energy use and emissions, quantify those reductions and report them to a formal tracking program: Track and record emissions reductions delivered by energy efficiency, renewable energy and other building emissions reduction measures, including reductions from the purchase of renewable energy credits or carbon offsets. Report emissions reductions using one of the following: A third-party voluntary reporting or certification program such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Climate Leaders, ENERGY STAR, the Carbon Disclosure Project or World Resources Institute / World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WRI/WBCSD) protocols. International Organization for Standards (ISO) :2006 Greenhouse gases, Part 1, Specification, with guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Potential Technologies & Strategies Address all of the significant types of pollutants reduced by energy efficiency”. Phytofilters not only reduce fuel consumption and increase energy efficiency thus reducing pollutants, but also reduce VOCs such as formaldehyde.

134 IEQ Credit 1.1: Indoor Air Quality Best Management Practices—Indoor Air Quality Management Program 1 point “Intent To enhance indoor air quality (IAQ) by optimizing practices to prevent the development of indoor air quality problems in buildings, correcting indoor air quality problems when they occur and maintaining the well-being of the occupants. Requirements Develop and implement on an ongoing basis an IAQ management program based on the EPA Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM), EPA Reference Number 402-C , December 2002, available at Potential Technologies & Strategies Operate a program to enhance IAQ by optimizing practices to prevent the development of IAQ in buildings and maintain the well-being of the occupants. Survey and evaluate building systems to identify potential IAQ problems and implement an ongoing program to prevent these problems from occurring and to maintain a high level of IAQ. Include in the program a plan for preventing moisture accumulation and mold in the building. For additional information, see the EPA Web site on IAQ, This is a perfect opportunity to show an alternate plan using the phytofilter technology system developed by NASA (and if not accepted go for the innovation in operations credit.)

135 IEQ Credit 2.1: Occupant Comfort—Occupant Survey 1 point
Intent To provide for the assessment of building occupants’ comfort as it relates to thermal comfort, acoustics, indoor air quality (IAQ), lighting levels, building cleanliness and any other comfort issues. Requirements Implement an occupant comfort survey and complaint response system to collect anonymous responses about thermal comfort, acoustics, IAQ, lighting levels, building cleanliness and other occupant comfort issues. The survey must be collected from a representative sample of building occupants making up at least 30% of the total occupants, and it must include an assessment of overall satisfaction with building performance and identification of any comfort-related problems. Document survey results and corrective actions to address comfort issues identified through the surveys. Conduct at least 1 occupant survey during the performance period. Potential Technologies & Strategies Conducting an occupant survey is a valuable tool for identifying and addressing occupants’ comfort and building performance issues. Develop a plan for corrective action to address any identified problems or concerns. Alternative survey ideas are available in the LEED Reference Guide for Green Building Operations & Maintenance, 2009 Edition. Once the phytofilter system is installed with its benefits it should show excellent responses from building inhabitants.

136 IO Credit 1: Innovation in Operations 1–4 points
“Intent To provide building operations, maintenance and upgrade teams with the opportunity to achieve additional environmental benefits achieved beyond those already addressed by the LEED 2009 for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance Rating System. Requirements Credit can be achieved through any combination of the Innovation in Operations and Exemplary Performance paths as described below: PATH 1. Innovation in Operations (1-4 points) Achieve significant, measurable environmental performance using an operations, maintenance or system upgrade strategy not addressed in the LEED 2009 for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance Rating System”. The Phytofilter Technologies Strategy & Technology to be followed: A phytofilter technologies system will be installed in a building where it will supply superior energy savings and an improved indoor air supply with limited ventilation in a manner not addressed in the LEED 2009 for Existing Buidlings: Operations & Maintenance Rating System..

137 RP Credit 1: Regional Priority 1–4 Points
“Intent To provide an incentive for the achievement of credits that address geographically specific environmental priorities:. Zone 1: Regional Priorities for 5 counties of New York City to which Phytofilter Technology would have an application: Air: Respiratory Illnesses Related to Air Pollution Energy: Building Operations Optimization* Energy: Energy Efficient Design* Phytofilter Technology provides relief to those suffering from respiratory illness and increases energy efficiency.

138 Plant Air Purifiers Are What Going Green Is All About.

139 They Can Be Hooked Into The Ventilation System,

140 Or Can Be Free Standing.

141 They Can Hang From The Ceiling,

142 Or Can Be Placed Against A Wall.

143 They Can Be Hung From Balconies,

144 Or Installed In Uninhabited Space, As In a Basement,

145 Or Can Even Be Contained In A Mobile Unit Which Can Simply Be Driven Up To & Hooked Into A Building’s Air Supply, VIA A MOBILE UNIT

146 Or Contained In A Shed Attached To The Building Itself.

147 They Require Little Maintenance Since They Have Their Own Irrigation System,

148 & Require No Filter Replacements Since Friendly Microbes Within The Filter Bed Actually Bio-Regenerate The Filter So That It Can Last Forever.

149 Plant Air Purifiers are also ideal for:
Schools, Day-care Centers, Hospitals, Nursing Homes Gyms, Stores, Office Buildings, Factories, Colleges & Universities, Airports Government Buildings Single & Multi Family Homes & Public and private bathrooms.

150 Summary The Different Types of Indoor Air Pollutants & especially Those which Present Air Purification Systems Don’t Treat too Well; Their effects How Nature Deals with Pollutants How Man Deals with them Mainly Through Ventilation and that has its own shortcomings; A New Discovery to deal with IAQ, NASA Developed, Phytofilter Technology, with its many advantages And how by incorporating this new technology within a building you can increase LEED Credits for Your building projects We’ve discussed methods to install such a system with no up front cost; Showed how it might look; And finally discussed why energy retrofits are the in thing and the many advantages they, and especially phytofilter systems, offer the property owner, building inhabitants, and the nation as a whole.

151 This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course as presented by Provider Name/Logo Contact Information

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