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**Analysis of Algorithms Lecture 2**

Input Output Algorithm

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Outline Running time Pseudo-code Counting primitive operations Asymptotic notation Asymptotic analysis Analysis of Algorithms

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**How good is Insertion-Sort?**

How can you answer such questions? Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

What is “goodness”? Correctness Minimum use of “time” + “space” How can we quantify it? Measure Count Estimate Analysis of Algorithms

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**1) Measure it – do an experiment!**

Write a program implementing the algorithm Run the program with inputs of varying size and composition Use a method like System.currentTimeMillis() to get an accurate measure of the actual running time Plot the results Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

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**Limitations of Experiments**

Must implement the algorithm, which may be difficult! Results may not reflect the running time on other inputs In order to compare two algorithms, the same hardware and software environments must be used Analysis of Algorithms

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**2) Count Primitive Operations**

The Idea Write down the pseudocode Count the number of “primitive operations” Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Pseudocode Algorithm arrayMax(A, n) Input array A of n integers Output maximum element of A currentMax A[0] for i 1 to n 1 do if A[i] currentMax then currentMax A[i] return currentMax Example: find max element of an array High-level description of an algorithm More structured than English prose Less detailed than a program Preferred notation for describing algorithms Hides program design issues Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Pseudocode Details Control flow if … then … [else …] while … do … repeat … until … for … do … Indentation replaces braces Method declaration Algorithm method (arg [, arg…]) Input … Output … Method call var.method (arg [, arg…]) Return value return expression Expressions Assignment (like in Java) Equality testing (like in Java) n2 Superscripts and other mathematical formatting allowed Analysis of Algorithms

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**The Random Access Machine (RAM) Model**

A CPU An potentially unbounded bank of memory cells, each of which can hold an arbitrary number or character 1 2 Memory cells are numbered and accessing any cell in memory takes unit time. Analysis of Algorithms

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**Random Access Model (RAM)**

Time complexity (running time) = number of instructions executed Space complexity = the number of memory cells accessed Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Primitive Operations Basic computations performed by an algorithm Identifiable in pseudocode Largely independent from the programming language Exact definition not important (we will see why later) Examples: Evaluating an expression Assigning a value to a variable Indexing into an array Calling a method Returning from a method Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analyzing pseudocode (by counting)**

For each line of pseudocode, count the number of primitive operations in it. Pay attention to the word "primitive" here; sorting an array is not a primitive operation. Multiply this count with the number of times this line is executed. Sum up over all lines. Analysis of Algorithms

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**Counting Primitive Operations**

By inspecting the pseudocode, we can determine the maximum number of primitive operations executed by an algorithm, as a function of the input size Algorithm arrayMax(A, n) currentMax A[0] Cost Times for i 1 to n 1 do n if A[i] currentMax then (n 1) currentMax A[i] (n 1) { increment counter i } (n 1) return currentMax Total 8n 3 operations Analysis of Algorithms

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**Estimating Running Time**

Algorithm arrayMax executes 8n 3 primitive operations in the worst case Define a Time taken by the fastest primitive operation b Time taken by the slowest primitive operation Let T(n) be the actual worst-case running time of arrayMax. We have a (8n 3) T(n) b(8n 3) Hence, the running time T(n) is bounded by two linear functions Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Insertion Sort Hint: observe each line i can be implemented using a constant number of RAM instructions, Ci for each value of j in the outer loop, we let tj be the number of times that the while loop test in line 4 is executed. Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Insertion Sort Question: So what is the running time? Analysis of Algorithms

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**Time Complexity may depend on the input!**

Best Case:? Worst Case:? Average Case:? Analysis of Algorithms

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**Complexity may depend on the input!**

Best Case: Already sorted. tj=1. Running time = C * N (a linear function of N) Worst Case: Inverse order. tj=j. Analysis of Algorithms

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**Arithmetic Progression**

Neglecting the constants, the worst-base running time of insertion sort is proportional to …+ n The sum of the first n integers is n(n + 1) / 2 Thus, algorithm insertion sort required almost n2 operations. Analysis of Algorithms

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**What about the Average Case?**

Idea: Assume that each of the n! permutations of A is equally likely. Compute the average over all possible different inputs of length N. Difficult to compute! In this course we focus on Worst Case Analysis! Analysis of Algorithms

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**See TimeComplexity Spreadsheet**

Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms Lecture 3**

Input Output Algorithm

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

What is “goodness”? Correctness Minimum use of “time” + “space” How can we quantify it? Measure wall clock time Count operations Estimate Computational Complexity Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Asymptotic Analysis Uses a high-level description of the algorithm instead of an implementation Allows us to evaluate the speed of an algorithm independent of the hardware/software environment Estimate the growth rate of T(n) A back of the envelope calculation!!! Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

The idea Write down an algorithm Using Pseudocode In terms of a set of primitive operations Count the # of steps In terms of primitive operations Considering worst case input Bound or “estimate” the running time Ignore constant factors Bound fundamental running time Analysis of Algorithms

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**Growth Rate of Running Time**

Changing the hardware/ software environment Affects T(n) by a constant factor, but Does not alter the growth rate of T(n) The linear growth rate of the running time T(n) is an intrinsic property of algorithm arrayMax Analysis of Algorithms

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**Which growth rate is best?**

T(n) = 1000n + n2 or T(n) = 2n + n3 Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Growth Rates Growth rates of functions: Linear n Quadratic n2 Cubic n3 In a log-log chart, the slope of the line corresponds to the growth rate of the function Analysis of Algorithms

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**Functions Graphed Using “Normal” Scale**

g(n) = 2n g(n) = 1 g(n) = n lg n g(n) = lg n g(n) = n2 g(n) = n g(n) = n3 Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Constant Factors The growth rate is not affected by constant factors or lower-order terms Examples 102n is a linear function 105n n is a quadratic function Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Big-Oh Notation Given functions f(n) and g(n), we say that f(n) is O(g(n)) if there are positive constants c and n0 such that f(n) cg(n) for n n0 Example: 2n + 10 is O(n) 2n + 10 cn (c 2) n 10 n 10/(c 2) Pick c = 3 and n0 = 10 Analysis of Algorithms

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**f(n) is O(g(n)) iff f(n) cg(n) for n n0**

Analysis of Algorithms

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**Big-Oh Notation (cont.)**

Example: the function n2 is not O(n) n2 cn n c The above inequality cannot be satisfied since c must be a constant Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

More Big-Oh Examples 7n-2 7n-2 is O(n) need c > 0 and n0 1 such that 7n-2 c•n for n n0 this is true for c = 7 and n0 = 1 3n3 + 20n2 + 5 3n3 + 20n2 + 5 is O(n3) need c > 0 and n0 1 such that 3n3 + 20n2 + 5 c•n3 for n n0 this is true for c = 4 and n0 = 21 3 log n + 5 3 log n + 5 is O(log n) need c > 0 and n0 1 such that 3 log n + 5 c•log n for n n0 this is true for c = 8 and n0 = 2 Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Big-Oh and Growth Rate The big-Oh notation gives an upper bound on the growth rate of a function The statement “f(n) is O(g(n))” means that the growth rate of f(n) is no more than the growth rate of g(n) We can use the big-Oh notation to rank functions according to their growth rate Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Questions Is T(n) = 9n n = O(n4)? Is T(n) = 9n n = O(n3)? Is T(n) = 9n n = O(n27)? T(n) = n n = O(?) T(n) = 3n + 32n n2 = O(?) Analysis of Algorithms

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**Big-Oh Rules (shortcuts)**

If is f(n) a polynomial of degree d, then f(n) is O(nd), i.e., Drop lower-order terms Drop constant factors Use the smallest possible class of functions Say “2n is O(n)” instead of “2n is O(n2)” Use the simplest expression of the class Say “3n + 5 is O(n)” instead of “3n + 5 is O(3n)” Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Rank From Fast to Slow… T(n) = O(n4) T(n) = O(n log n) T(n) = O(n2) T(n) = O(n2 log n) T(n) = O(n) T(n) = O(2n) T(n) = O(log n) T(n) = O(n + 2n) Note: Assume base of log is 2 unless otherwise instructed i.e. log n = log2 n Analysis of Algorithms

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**Computing Prefix Averages**

We further illustrate asymptotic analysis with two algorithms for prefix averages The i-th prefix average of an array X is average of the first (i + 1) elements of X A[i] = X[0] + X[1] + … + X[i] Computing the array A of prefix averages of another array X has applications to financial analysis Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Prefix Averages (Quadratic) The following algorithm computes prefix averages in quadratic time by applying the definition Algorithm prefixAverages1(X, n) Input array X of n integers Output array A of prefix averages of X #operations A new array of n integers n for i 0 to n 1 do n s X[0] n for j 1 to i do …+ (n 1) s s + X[j] …+ (n 1) A[i] s / (i + 1) n return A Analysis of Algorithms

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**Arithmetic Progression**

The running time of prefixAverages1 is O( …+ n) The sum of the first n integers is n(n + 1) / 2 There is a simple visual proof of this fact Thus, algorithm prefixAverages1 runs in O(n2) time Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Prefix Averages (Linear) The following algorithm computes prefix averages in linear time by keeping a running sum Algorithm prefixAverages2(X, n) Input array X of n integers Output array A of prefix averages of X #operations A new array of n integers n s for i 0 to n 1 do n s s + X[i] n A[i] s / (i + 1) n return A Algorithm prefixAverages2 runs in O(n) time Analysis of Algorithms

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**Math you may need to Review**

Summations Logarithms and Exponents Proof techniques Basic probability properties of logarithms: logb(xy) = logbx + logby logb (x/y) = logbx - logby logbxa = alogbx logba = logxa/logxb properties of exponentials: a(b+c) = aba c abc = (ab)c ab /ac = a(b-c) b = a logab bc = a c*logab Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Big-Omega Definition: f(n) is (g(n)) if there is a constant c > 0 and an integer constant n0 1 such that f(n) c•g(n) for n n0 An asymptotic lower Bound Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Big-Theta Definition: f(n) is (g(n)) if there are constants c’ > 0 and c’’ > 0 and an integer constant n0 1 such that c’•g(n) f(n) c’’•g(n) for n n0 Here we say that g(n) is an asymptotically tight bound for f(n). Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Big-Theta (cont) Based on the definitions, we have the following theorem: f(n) = Θ(g(n)) if and only if f(n) = O(g(n)) and f(n) = Ω(g(n)). For example, the statement n2/2 + lg n = Θ(n2) is equivalent to n2/2 + lg n = O(n2) and n2/2 + lg n = Ω(n2). Note that asymptotic notation applies to asymptotically positive functions only, which are functions whose values are positive for all sufficiently large n. Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Prove n2/2 + lg n = Θ(n2). Proof. To prove this claim, we must determine positive constants c1, c2 and n0, s.t. c1 n2<= n2/2 + lg n <= c2 n2 c1 <= ½ + (lg n) / n2 <= c2 (divide thru by n2) Pick c1 = ¼ , c2 = ¾ and n0 = 2 For n0 = 2, 1/4 <= ½ + (lg 2) / 4 <= ¾, TRUE When n0 > 2, the (½ + (lg 2) / 4) term grows smaller but never less than ½, therefore n2/2 + lg n = Θ(n2). Analysis of Algorithms

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**Intuition for Asymptotic Notation**

Big-Oh f(n) is O(g(n)) if f(n) is asymptotically less than or equal to g(n) big-Omega f(n) is (g(n)) if f(n) is asymptotically greater than or equal to g(n) big-Theta f(n) is (g(n)) if f(n) is asymptotically equal to g(n) Analysis of Algorithms

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**Analysis of Algorithms**

A word of caution… Asymptotic analysis is fragile Constants do matter! Don’t play games! Modern processors are not RAM Analysis of Algorithms

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**A word of caution… In practice, performance comes from**

Careful Engineering Systematic Evaluation Algorithmic Analysis Analysis of Algorithms

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