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Definitions of Reality (ref . Wiki Discussions)

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Presentation on theme: "Definitions of Reality (ref . Wiki Discussions)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Definitions of Reality (ref . Wiki Discussions)

Understand the fundamentals of nature, ideas or thinking, knowledge, the good life, aesthetics, politics and God Reality and Truth Consciousness, Soul, Spirit

3 WHAT IS REAL The state of things as they actually exist State (scale and dimensions, space and time, observation) Things (stuff or objects) Exist (mental or physical)

4 TRUTH Correspondence of statement to what is real
Correspondence of model to what is real: prediction vs creation; experience vs description What is the best model?

5 Reality Two Ontologic Approaches
What exists: REALISM, independent of the mind What appears: PHENOMEONOLOGY, what (and how) it occurs in consciousness

6 THEOLOGY Study of the Gods Sources include mythology, reason, revelation Now separated generally from science

7 NATURAL PHILOSOPHY Study of nature and the physical universe Focus on application of reason Precursor of modern science Originally included study of Gods

8 WAYS OF KNOWING Intuition Revelation Senses Reason Non-computable Sources (Penrose)

9 Metaphysics vs Epistemology vs Science
Metaphysics: study of what exists (idealism, materialism, dualism) Epistemology: Study of nature and scope of knowledge (empiricism, rationalism, constructivism) Science: use of empirical data to construct models that can predict the future

10 REASON Deduction vs Induction
Deduction: Reasoning based on definitions, rules of logic & axioms. Validity not Truth Induction: Reasoning from general fact to a conclusion. Does not guarantee truth, but only likelihood. (Hume and Popper) Limits of mind or mathematical tools?

11 Scientific Method Issues
Popper’s Falsifiability (problem with induction) Gödel's Theorem (incompleteness of formal logical systems) Measurement Precision (sensitivity to initial conditions results in deterministic chaos, e.g. weather) Laws or approximations

12 Causality Relationship between one event and another (necessary and sufficient) Determinism (orderly laws that specify transformation from one state to another that are in principle reversible, Newton’s laws) Indeterminism (laws can only predict likelihood of outcome, quantum theory) Emergence (sum is greater than parts) Problem of free will in either case

Framework of beliefs and ideas through which one interprets and experiences the world Belief vs Truth (depends on what “is” is) What is my world view (try to write it down) We will revisit at end of course Rule: Each world view will be respected

14 Truths and Consequences of World View
Idealist Materialist Dualist Other

15 Big Questions Time Space Matter, Energy, Nothingness (Vacuum?)
Complexity (reduction vs emergence) Consciousness Cosmology Life God

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