2 PHILOSOPHY LOVE OF WISDOM Understand the fundamentals of nature, ideas or thinking, knowledge, the good life, aesthetics, politics and GodReality and TruthConsciousness, Soul, Spirit
3 WHAT IS REALThe state of things as they actually existState (scale and dimensions, space and time, observation)Things (stuff or objects)Exist (mental or physical)
4 TRUTH Correspondence of statement to what is real Correspondence of model to what is real: prediction vs creation; experience vs descriptionWhat is the best model?
5 Reality Two Ontologic Approaches What exists: REALISM, independent of the mindWhat appears: PHENOMEONOLOGY, what (and how) it occurs in consciousness
6 THEOLOGYStudy of the GodsSources include mythology, reason, revelationNow separated generally from science
7 NATURAL PHILOSOPHYStudy of nature and the physical universeFocus on application of reasonPrecursor of modern scienceOriginally included study of Gods
8 WAYS OF KNOWINGIntuitionRevelationSensesReasonNon-computable Sources (Penrose)
9 Metaphysics vs Epistemology vs Science Metaphysics: study of what exists (idealism, materialism, dualism)Epistemology: Study of nature and scope of knowledge (empiricism, rationalism, constructivism)Science: use of empirical data to construct models that can predict the future
10 REASON Deduction vs Induction Deduction: Reasoning based on definitions, rules of logic & axioms. Validity not TruthInduction: Reasoning from general fact to a conclusion. Does not guarantee truth, but only likelihood. (Hume and Popper)Limits of mind or mathematical tools?
11 Scientific Method Issues Popper’s Falsifiability (problem with induction)Gödel's Theorem (incompleteness of formal logical systems)Measurement Precision (sensitivity to initial conditions results in deterministic chaos, e.g. weather)Laws or approximations
12 CausalityRelationship between one event and another (necessary and sufficient)Determinism (orderly laws that specify transformation from one state to another that are in principle reversible, Newton’s laws)Indeterminism (laws can only predict likelihood of outcome, quantum theory)Emergence (sum is greater than parts)Problem of free will in either case
13 World View WELTANSCHAUUNG Framework of beliefs and ideas through which one interprets and experiences the worldBelief vs Truth (depends on what “is” is)What is my world view (try to write it down)We will revisit at end of courseRule: Each world view will be respected
14 Truths and Consequences of World View IdealistMaterialistDualistOther
15 Big Questions Time Space Matter, Energy, Nothingness (Vacuum?) Complexity (reduction vs emergence)ConsciousnessCosmologyLifeGod