Presentation on theme: "Lesson Essential Questions: How did Spartan culture prevent them from developing into a greater city-state? How did Spartan culture prevent them from developing."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson Essential Questions: How did Spartan culture prevent them from developing into a greater city-state? How did Spartan culture prevent them from developing into a greater city-state? How did Athenian culture allow the development of a powerful city-state? How did Athenian culture allow the development of a powerful city-state? How did Athenian culture compare and contrast Spartan culture? How did Athenian culture compare and contrast Spartan culture?
Spartan Male Newborns Spartan males were taken to the elders and inspected. If they were healthy, they were allowed to live. If newborn boys were not considered healthy, they were left to die on a sacred hillside.
Sparta - Young Males At age 7, boys were sent to military camps. Boys were trained under teenage leaders. Their life was very organized. Boys had one piece of clothing to wear and had to go barefoot. Boys did not get much food. They were expected to steal food and not get caught.
Sparta - Young Males They had to walk with their eyes to the ground, and spoke only when necessary. They learned to read, write, and used weapons. They slept outdoors without any cover. As they got older, punishments became more harsh.
Sparta - Adult Males Only aristocrats could be citizens. At age 18, men would be chosen for particular army groups. If they were among the best, they were selected to join the Selected Service Brigade. One of their tests to become a man required Spartan males to sneak up on helot and kill them and not get caught! Spartan males were organized into messes, or a group of soldiers that live and eat together.
Sparta - Adult Males Spartan males were expected to marry around age 20. Even though they were married, men still had to live with their mess, where they shared living expenses. At age 30, men could live with their families, but they were still in the military. When they were older, men would serve on garrison, or guard, duty. At age 60, they could retire from the army.
Athenian Male Newborns Families would announce the birth of a boy by pinning olive leaves to the door. Olive leaves signified victory. If they were not wanted, they could also be left in a public spot to be picked up and adopted or raised as a slave. Ten days after a boy was born, there was a special ceremony to announce his name. Boys were also presented to their father’s deme, or their village, inside Athens.
Athens - Young Males Boys began schooling around 6 or 7. Since there were no public schools, boys either had a tutor or attended private school. They learned reading, writing, and mathematics. They practiced sports and memorized the works of Homer and other Greek poets. They also learned music and practiced sports at a gymnasium. Along with their lessons, boys would also learn the trade, or job, of their father.
Athens - Adult Males Males would become citizens at age 18. They would go to the temple of Zeus and take an oath of citizenship in front of their family and friends. In the oath, they promised to help make Athens a better place to live, be honorable in battle, follow the constitution, and respect their religion. Citizens could vote. Men would have to serve in the military for at least 2 years.
Athens - Adult Males In their free time, men could hunt to obtain more meat, especially since meat was expensive to buy. Men in Athens would serve on juries as part of their duty as a citizen. Men in Athens would marry later in life, around age 30. Men would not often see their new bride’s face until after the wedding.
Spartan Female Newborns Newborn girls were inspected by their mothers to see if they were healthy. The hope for girls were to grow strong and bear sons for Sparta.
Sparta - Young Females If they had older brothers, they would not see them after the boys turned 7. Girls exercised and danced to keep fit. Girls wore simple clothing, like a chiton, but they could go naked. Helots did most of the housework, including weaving. At age 13, girls could participate in the Heraia, or “girl Olympics.”
Sparta - Females: Marriage - Adulthood Spartan girls would marry around age 18. Their husbands would not be able to live with them until the age of 30. Spartan women would not see their husbands unless they snuck out of their military barracks. Spartan women would have children. The state, Sparta, would pay and provide their food. The ultimate goal for a Spartan woman was to have sons and send them off to war.
Athenian Female Newborns When a girl was born, they put sheep's wool on the door to signify domestic or house life. If a girl was not wanted, they could be left in a public place to be adopted or taken as slaves.
Athens - Young Females Girls were taught from an early age to take care of children. A girls’ brother’s needs were put above hers since boys were valued more. Girls did not go to school. Girls learned to weave cloth, wall hangings, and bed linens. If they did not need the cloth they made, they sold it.
Athens - Young Females Girls learned to run a household. Girls were not allowed to socialize or exercise with boys because it was not ladylike. Girls in Athens did not participate in the Heraia.
Athens - Females: Marriage - Adulthood At age 13, an Athenian girl’s childhood was over. Girls would take their toys to the temple of Artemis and give them to her. Girls would begin to wear a special girdle, or belt, that they had to wear until they married. This symbolized they were an adult. Girls could marry as young as 14. Marriages were arranged by their father, and it was common for the groom to be older, like 30 years old. A woman was considered her husband’s property.
Athens - Females: Marriage - Adulthood If their husbands were wealthy, they would have slaves. Women would train the household slaves. Women did not have public roles, unless they were chosen as a temple priestess. When a family member died, it was the females’ job was to prepared the dead for burial.
Spartan Government At first, Sparta was ruled by kings. Later, aristocrats took over the government, and two kings ruled jointly, but they had little power. The role of kings were to lead the army and conduct religious services. Define aristocrats : nobles Define oligarchy: a government in which a few people or a select group of people have the ruling power
Spartan Government The Assembly All citizens over 20 were members of the Assembly. The Assembly made the laws and decided war and peace. Ephors The ephors were five managers chosen by the Assembly. The ephors managed the education of boys and took charge of public affairs. Council of Elders The Council of Elders was made up of men over 60 and they were chosen for life.
Athenian Government At first, Athens was ruled by kings. Later, landowners, merchants, and nobles took over the government. They formed an oligarchy. Define oligarchy: a government in which a few people or a select group of people have the ruling power Later still – fights broke out over land ownership. The upper class did not want fights to turn into uprisings, so they decided to change their government. Define democracy: A type of government favoring the equality of all people.
Athenian Government The Assembly The Assembly was eventually opened to all males over 20 years old. The Assembly passed the laws. Ten Generals Each year the Assembly chose ten generals. The ten generals ran the army and the navy and served as judges. One of the judges was chosen as commander-in-chief.
Athenian Government Council of Five Hundred The Council of Five Hundred handled the daily business of Athens. Each year, members were chosen by drawing 500 names out of a pot. No one could serve more than twice. Every citizen had a chance to be a member.