Presentation on theme: "Section 1: Political Machines"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 1: Political Machines Chapter 17: Politics in the Gilded AgeSection 1: Political MachinesPages:
2 Political Machines The Rise of the Political Machine: (518-519) The continuing growth of cities created a new challenge for city governments:.Growing urban populations also required the expansion or new construction of bridges, parks, schools, streets, sewer systems, utility systems, fire, police and sanitation departmentsWith the support of very well-organized political parties, city council members and district representatives took charge of city governmentsThey oversaw new public services and, in many cases, pocketed money meant for the public good
3 Political Machines The Rise of the Political Machine: (518-519) Political bosses: (518)Political Machine: well-organized political parties that dominated city governments in the United States and they had great success in getting their members elected to local political offices.Powerful political bosses managed these machinesPolitical bosses dictated party positions on city ordinances and made deals with business leadersThey also controlled the district leaders, city officials, and council members who kept the machine running smoothly.
4 Political Machines The Rise of the Political Machine: (518-519) Political bosses: (518)Precinct captains built relationships with voters living in urban neighborhoods and was a great strength of political machines – meet voters face-to-faceBy offering jobs, political favors, and services to local residents, precinct captains won support for the political machineAt election time, bosses and precinct captains instructed local residents to vote for selected candidates and they did
5 Political Machines The Rise of the Political Machine: (518-519) Public services: (519)During the late 1800s political machines attempted to provide the public services required by growing U.S. citiesPolitical bosses such as Alexander Shepherd of Washington, D.C., financed expanded sewer and water systems, paved streets, and provided other public servicesThe boom in public-works projects meant that bosses could distribute many jobs among loyal supporters
6 Political Machines The Rise of the Political Machine: (518-519) Public services: (519)By providing jobs, political favors, and services to local residents, political machines were able to win support from many poor working-class city-dwellers
7 Political Machines Immigrants and Political Machines: (519-520) Because political machines helped the urban poor, new immigrants often became particularly loyal supports of political machinesMachine politicians usually met immigrants as soon as they arrived in the United StatesThey helped newcomers get settled in their new homeland
8 Political Machines Immigrants and Political Machines: (519-520) Tammany Hall, a political club that had gained considerable power in the 1860s and early 1870s, became a powerful Democratic political machine in New York CityIt sent numerous party workers to Ellis Island to meet new immigrantsParty workers assisted immigrants by finding them temporary housing and jobs. They also helped immigrants become naturalized citizens and thus eligible to vote for Tammany Hall candidatesHowever, Tammany officials failed to offer any extensive programs to address poverty and poor housing conditions
9 Political Machines Immigrants and Political Machines: (519-520) Political bosses ensured voter loyalty among immigrant groups by providing jobs in exchange for votesJames Pendergast was a particularly well-liked boss in Kansas City, MissouriPendergast gained considerable political support by providing jobs and special services to African Americans, Irish Americans, and Italian American voters
10 Political Machines Immigrants and Political Machines: (519-520) In some cities, however, immigrants became active members of political machines, serving as officeholders, organizers and representativesBecause Irish Americans spoke English as a first language, they had slightly easier access to U.S. Political process than many other immigrant groups
11 Political MachinesGraft and Corruption: ( )Political machines often resorted to corruption in their attempt to take control of city governmentsMachine corruption often interfered with the important functions of city government
12 Political Machines Graft and Corruption: (520-523) Election Fraud: (520)When jobs and political favors were not enough to build popular support during elections, some political machines turned to fraudFor example, during one election in Philadelphia, a voting district with fewer than 100 registered voters somehow returned 252 votes
13 Political Machines Graft and Corruption: (520-523) Graft: (520-522) Graft means: the acquisition of money or political power through illegal or dishonest methodsOnce elected, political bosses often became even more corruptPolitical bosses looked for ways to increase their own political power and personal wealthPoliticians often received bribes, payoffs, or KICKBACKS – payments of part of the earnings from a job or contractIn Chicago, business leader Charles Tyson Yerkes built an empire of street railway lines by paying Alderman John Powers to support city ordinances favorable to his company
14 Political Machines Graft and Corruption: (520-523) The Tweed Ring: (523)William Marcy Tweed was a boss of Tammany Hall in the 1860sThe Tweed Ring collected $200 million in graft between 1865 and 1871.The corruption of Tammany Hall and the Tweed Ring was mercilessly revealed in a series of political cartoons drawn by Thomas Nast. His cartoons exposed the corruption of Tammany Hall and contributed to Tweed’s conviction for fraud and extortion in 1873.