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Adult Learning Andragogy: what is it?

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Presentation on theme: "Adult Learning Andragogy: what is it?"— Presentation transcript:


2 Adult Learning Andragogy: what is it?
The Six Core Assumptions of the Adult Learner Review Assumptions Resources

3 What is andragogy? What’s so special about how adults learn?
andragogy is the art and science of helping adults to learn emphasis is on the learner the voluntary nature is cornerstone a relatively new field previously, little research and writing about adult learning focus has shifted

4 Andragogy vs. Pedagogy pedagogy is the art and science of teaching children teacher directed pedagogy emphasis on the subject basis of the American educational system

5 Malcolm Knowles/Adult Learning
father of andragogy adult learning vs. andragogy provides a framework creates a context the individual vs. generalizations

6 Core Assumptions of the Adult Learner
The Need to Know The Learner’s Self Concept/Self Directed Learning The Role of the Learner’s Experience Readiness to Learn Orientation to Learning Motivation

7 The Need to Know How What Why
adults need to know why they need to learn something before they undertake to learn it How What Why What can I do? needs assessment clear & realistic preview of the program topics clearly defined roles expected outcomes daily schedule

8 The Learner’s Self Concept:
adults want to be responsible for their own decisions and actions adults want to take ownership for their learning but…… structured learning environment = back to school

9 The Learner’s Self Concept:
treat me like an adult…. SOMETIMES! self-directed learning is situational dependent

10 The Learner’s Self Concept:
What can I do? clarify expectations provide more choices and involvement instructional style collaborative learning environment learner sets his/her own goals & objectives provide feedback welcome mistakes

11 The Learner’s Experience
adults bring great and varied life experiences & knowledge to their learning experience is who they are reject my experience = reject me strongly established feelings & memories of past learning

12 The Learner’s Experience
all prior experience affects learning help hindrance like a puzzle piece positive consequences it’s filtered negative consequences

13 When Experience Helps:
relate information to prior knowledge analogies mnemonics (ABCD, acronyms), enumeration recall experience

14 How Experience Hinders:
As we accumulate experience, we tend to develop mental habits, biases & presuppositions that tend to close our minds to new ideas, fresh perspectives & alternative ways of thinking. (Knowles, 2005, p.66) information that conflicts with prior knowledge is learned more slowly resistance restructuring

15 The Learner’s Experience
What can I do? provide access to info prior to learning anchor individualize instructional strategies tap into experience group discussions peer activities simulation exercises provide familiar context

16 Readiness to Learn: adults become ready to learn those things they need to know in order to cope specific learning needs are generated by real life events learning experiences need to coincide with where the adult is at that point in their life adults have fundamentally different needs for assistance (direction vs. support)

17 Readiness to Learn: What can I do?
survey the learners for realistic & practical needs before, during & after the program realistic situations or simulated situations tailor the support/direction given based on individual needs create a relaxed & informal atmosphere facilitator/instructor responsible for affective environment

18 Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving W.I.F.M.
“How does what I’m learning apply to my life?” “I want to apply this RIGHT NOW!” “Let me figure it out.” “Let me set my own goals.”

19 Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving
What can I do? learner sets own goals provide learning opportunities that allow for problem solving allow for immediate application of learning learning needs to be contextual and focus on experiential learning encourage reflection allow the learner to evaluate their own progress

20 Motivation primarily internal
excited to learn anything that helps them understand or improve prefer learning that helps them solve problems or interests them show me the improvement!

21 Motivation Motivation to learn is the sum of 4 factors: Success
Volition Value Enjoyment

22 Motivation What can I do? provide choices when possible
create a safe environment feedback make the learning authentic & experiential allow the learner to influence timing and pace provide access to relevant resources clearly state objectives at the beginning of the learning session allow the learner to evaluate their own progress

23 Review- 6 Core Assumptions of the Adult Learner:
Why learn? I’m a responsible learner…? Experience-yes please! “It’s my life, it’s now or never….” Let me figure it out. Show me the improvement!

24 RESOURCES The Adult Learner. Malcolm S. Knowles, Elwood F. Holton III, Richard A. Swanson 2005 Learning to Listen, Learning to Teach: The Power of Dialogue in Educating Adults. Jane Vella, 2003 Beyond Instruction. William J. Rothwell, Peter S. Cookson, 1997 Classroom Instruction That Works. Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, 2001 From Telling to Teaching. Joye A. Norris, 2003 How to Teach so Students Remember. Marilee Sprenger, 2005

25 RESOURCES (The Clinical Educator’s Resource Kit) (Andragogy: Appreciating the Characteristics of the Adult Learner) 30 Things We Know For Sure About Adult Learning. Rob & Susan Zemke Innovation Abstracts Vol VI, No 8, March 9, 1984 Principles of Adult Learning. Stephen Lieb, VISION, Fall 1991

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