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2/4/08 Fig. 17-10. 2/4/08 White Blood Cell Production  CSFs you need to know (most important ones):  GM-CSF = distinguishes myeloblast from monoblast.

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Presentation on theme: "2/4/08 Fig. 17-10. 2/4/08 White Blood Cell Production  CSFs you need to know (most important ones):  GM-CSF = distinguishes myeloblast from monoblast."— Presentation transcript:

1 2/4/08 Fig. 17-10

2 2/4/08 White Blood Cell Production  CSFs you need to know (most important ones):  GM-CSF = distinguishes myeloblast from monoblast  G-CSF = makes granular leukocytes  M-CSF = triggers monocyte formation  For some blood cell production hormones… ♦EPO, G-CSF, GM-CSF  …similar chemicals can by used as drug treatments to increase the levels of those cell types

3 2/4/08 Blood – day 3 Chapter 17

4 2/4/08 Fig. 17-10

5 2/4/08 Platelet Production = Thrombocytopoiesis  Hemocytoblast (in bone marrow)  Megakaryocyte ♦Large cells ♦Make proteins, enzymes, membrane for the platelet, then… ♦Platelets bud off of them ♦Each one produces approx. 5,000-10,000 platelets  Shredded cytoplasm = platelets  Hormones ♦Thrombopoietin (TPO) ♦Interleucin-6 (IC-6) ♦Multi-CSF  Circulate for approx. one week, then are destroyed by the spleen & specialized cells in the liver

6 2/4/08 Back to Red Blood Cells  Another important feature of RBCs  Identification “tag” ♦Ensures that only siimilar/same type of RBCs remain in one blood stream ♦= a defense feature  ID tags = blood type  Blood type = different carbohydrates on the surface called antigens  Antigens are recognition factors Fig. 17-6

7 2/4/08 Blood Type  Antigens are recognition factors  Blood plasma also contains anti-bodies  Antibodies match the blood-type NOT in the individual  Antibodies are there to detect if foreign blood cells are present  If B is given to A, anti-B reacts with B antigen ♦Agglutination – destroys cells ♦In the bargain it also interferes with normal blood flow

8 2/4/08 Fig. 17-6

9 2/4/08 Agglutination  Blood plasma also carries antibodies

10 2/4/08 Blood types  ABO system of blood typing OO ♦Universal donor but dilution factor is important b/c it has both antibodies in plasma  Example of what happens when combining blood types and antibodies Fig. 17-7

11 2/4/08 Rh system  Another form of antigen found in the blood ♦+ or –  Separate from ABO, but functions similarly  Rh + = presence of D antigen  RH - = NO D antigen  RH - will produce anti-D antibodies (anti Rh) if exposed to Rh + blood  1 st transfusion can go alright, 2 nd transfusion will have a serious effect  Situation of concern = erythroblastosis fetalis

12 2/4/08 Rh system - problems  Situation of concern = erythroblastosis fetalis  Hemolytic disease of the newborn  Mother has RH - blood  Fetus has Rh + blood ♦The fetus produces it’s own blood during development ♦Fetus is protected from mother by the placenta ♦There is an exchange of nutrients with the mothers blood, but no mixing of blood  Not a problem, no anti-D (anti-Rh) antibodies produced in mothers blood

13 2/4/08 Rh system - problems  AT DELIVERY ♦Uterus lining tears ♦At this point, fetal blood may enter mother’s blood stream ♦This produces anti-D in the mother  For the second pregnancy there could be a serious problem…. ♦…the mother now has anti-D ♦Though “blood” doesn’t cross the placenta, antibodies can, and this one does – attacks the RBCs of the fetus ♦Problems range from mild to very severe (including miscarriage)  Treatment ♦Replace fetal blood with Rh - – OK, not really possible, but… ♦Treat mother with Rh-gamma globulin before delivery Prevents anti-D (anti-Rh) production

14 2/4/08 Fig. 17-8

15 2/4/08 Important Function of Platelets Fig. 17-  Blood clotting  Wounding ♦Starts with breaking of skin = blood vessels are torn  3 steps take place 1.Vascular spasm ♦Smooth muscle contracts, constricting the blood vessel ♦Slows flow of blood out of the vessel (out of the body) 2.Platelet formation ♦During this phase, different chemicals are produced Clotting factors PROSTAGLANDINS Fibrin stabilizing factor  Culminating in clot formation  Happens in 2-6 minutes

16 2/4/08 Blood clotting steps cont…  3 steps take place 3.Clot formation ♦Fibrinogen converted to FIBRIN (fiber like protein) Triggered by thrombin ♦Further blocks up cut ♦Prevents loss of blood cells  This all happens in approx. 2-6 minutes

17 2/4/08 Fig. 17-11

18 2/4/08 Fig. 17-12

19 2/4/08 Well known blood disorders Fig. 17-  Anemia  Leukemia  Mononucleosis

20 2/4/08 Blood Disorders - ANEMIA  Loss of efficiency in O 2 transport in RBCs  Could be due to: ♦Hb deficiency, low RBC count, hemorraghing, etc.  There are several types of anemia – a few examples ♦Hemorrhagic Low RBC count due to bleeding ♦Aplastic Abnormal/destroyed bone marrow = low RBC production = needs bone marrow transplant ♦Iron-deficiency Not enough Fe 2+ for Hb in diet ♦Sickle-cell Abnormal β-globulin protein – changes the shape of RBC

21 2/4/08 Blood Disorders - LEUKEMIA  Cancer of blood cells ♦= uncontrollable growth  Makes up 6% of all cancers  Leading cause of death in children  Acute ♦↑ immature WBCs, very rapid onset ♦Typically in children and young adults ♦Interferes with RBC production due to crowding in the bone marrow  Chronic ♦Later onset, may take months/years to progress ♦↑ mature WBCs, but still abnormal blood cells

22 2/4/08 Blood Disorders - MONONUCLEOSIS  Caused by a virus ♦Epstein-Barr virus  Enlarged lymphocytes ♦Thus see ↑ in WBC count  Look like monocytes ♦↑ monocyte count  Symptoms ♦Enlarged glands and those items above  Treatment ♦Rest

23 2/4/08 Fig. 17-12

24 2/4/08 Fig. 17-9

25 2/4/08 Fig. 17-7

26 2/4/08 ro Fig. 17-2

27 2/4/08 Fig. 17-2

28 2/4/08 Fig. 17-


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