Presentation on theme: "Villars 2004 Report on the SPSC Villars Meeting September"— Presentation transcript:
1Villars 2004 Report on the SPSC Villars Meeting September 22-28 2004 John DaintonUniversity of Liverpool, GB(on behalf of the SPSC)
2Villars 2004 Report on the SPSC Villars Meeting Framework Machines and BeamsHeavy IonsNeutrinosSoft and Hard ProtonsAntiproton PhysicsFlavour PhysicsOther TopicsSummaryReport on the SPSC Villars MeetingSeptemberJohn DaintonUniversity of Liverpool, GB(on behalf of the SPSC)Note 8/10/04: Overheads are here exactly as presented apart from a small number of bugs which have been fixed, and apart from the inclusion of some overheads skipped in the seminar because of time pressure.
4Charge “to review present and future activities and opportunities in fixed-target physics, and to consider possibilities and options for a future fixed target programme at CERN”globally importantrealistic (beams + resources)short, intermediate, and long term from the SPCSPSC not in approval/rejection mode !
5Timetable “… groups working on fixed target experiments at CERN, and also groups which have in mind the submission of proposals for such experiments, to forward to the SPSC secretariat in due time a short report indicating their ideas and plans for the future” SPSC67 April 200411 submissions received +COMPASSDIRAC kπ atomsCNGS}committed beyond 2005
6Submissions of Interest Expression of Interest to Measure Rare Kaon Decays at the CERN SPS (NA48-Future Working Group)A New Experimental Programme with Nuclei and Proton Beams at the CERN SPS (M. Gazdzicki for NA49 Colln)Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields - exploring the Schwinger field (U.I. Uggerhoj for NA43 Colln)COMPASS x (A. Magnon for NA58/COMPASS Colln)Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons(R.S. Hayano for AD-3/ASACUSA Colln)Hadron production measurements (J. Panman for PS214/HARP Colln)Possible Future Experimental Searches at CERN in Astroparticle Physics (K. Zioutas for the CAST Colln)Measurement of antimatter gravity with an (anti)matter wave interferometer (C. Regenfus, Physik Inst . Univ. Zürich)Expression of Interest: Study of dimuon and heavy-flavour production in proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisionsAntihydrogen Laser Experiment Roadmap (J.S. Hangst)R&D for Antimatter Spectroscopy (Neutral Atom Trap (NEAT) Colln)
7 May 25-26: CERN SPL Workshop (also @ Villars) Timetable contd May 25-26: CERN SPL Workshop Villars) June 5-8: High Intensity Workshop (INFN)HIF04 Villars) SPSC68 Julyprogramme finalised (speakers fixed) September 22 to 28: Villars October: CERN December: report to RB + SPC
8Organisation topic chief convener conveners anti-protons H Bialkowska R Batley, M de JongG Hamel de MonchenaultneutrinosD WarkM Doser, M Piccoloheavy flavorS ForteJ Ritman,A Schäfersoft and hard hadronsU StössleinM Doser, S ForteS KoxHeavy IonsL KlubergI Brock, A Schäfer
9Programme Date Morning Afternoon Wednesday Sept 22 CERN perspve+accelr MMWSPLHIFHeavy Ion 1Thursday Sept 23Heavy Ion 2Neutrino 1Friday Sept 24Neutrino 2Soft and hard hadron physics 1Saturday Sept 25Soft and hard hadron physics 2Anti-proton 1Sunday Sept 26Anti-proton 2HF 1Monday Sept 27HF 2Other TopicsDiscussionTuesday Sept 28Summary, Discussion & Conclusions including presentations by convenors of conclusions concerning physics directions
10Invited presentations FormatTopic structureSession 1Session 2Keynoteintroduction1Invited presentationswith discussion2Further discussion3Summary4Invited speakerexperimentsallconvenors1 keynote speaker(s) for status and outlook including and “beyond”CERN2 includes CERN experiment and CERN proto-experiment representatives and, if essential, also summariser(s) from other labs3 focussing on future strategy4 first draft of conclusions concerning physics directions
11SPSC members (= convenors + chair) Documentation Overheads Submitted documents WG Convenor summaries Summary speaker’s conclusions SPSC conclusions in Chair’s seminar overheads Summary of conclusions and recommendationswrittenSPSC members (= convenors + chair)
122. Machines and Beams Aymar, Benedikt, Cervelli, Elsener, Engelen, Garoby,Gatignon, Palladino2. Machines and Beams
13Users’ View of Future: pre Villars04 Garoby● as heard by HIP from usersUSERCERN COMMITMENT*USERS’ WISHESShort term(low cost)Medium term(intermt cost~ asap !Long term(high cost: >2013)LHCPlanned beamsUltimate luminosityLuminosity upgradesFT (COMPASS)7.2´105 spills/y ?7.2´105 spills/yCNGS4.5´1019 p/yearUpgrade ~ ´2ISOLDE1.92 mA **Upgrade ~ ´5Future n beams> 2 GeV / 4 MWEURISOL1-2 GeV / 5 MW* Reference value for analysis** 1350 pulses/h – 3.2´1013 ppp
14● beam loss irradiation @ high intensity ● period 0.6 s 0.9 s ? UpgradesBenediktGaroby● beam loss high intensitymulti-turn ejection from PS (“island extractn”)● period s s ?> cost >worse PSB flexibility better● intensity/SPS pulse increase CNGS flux- machine impedance (kickers, RF…) ?- injection energy ?- bunching in the PS ?only
1572 bunch train for LHC at PS exit [´1011 ppb] Without upgrades*BenediktGaroby200620072010Basic user’s requestCNGS flux[´1019 pot/year]4.4*4.2*4.9*4.5FT spills[´105 /year]126.96.36.199E Hall spills[´106 /year]1.32.3NTOF flux188.8.131.52ISOLDE flux [μA][no. pulses/hour]1.8412961.6511601.7412201.92135072 bunch train for LHC at PS exit [´1011 ppb]1.3 (2**)* with important irradn of PS equipt** ultimate beam in LHC
1672 bunch train for LHC at PS exit [´1011 ppb] With upgradesBenediktGaroby●(i) PSB repetition period of 0.9 s(ii) 7x1013 ppp in SPS(iii) Linac4 injecting into PSBStandard(i)CNGSx2 batch(i)+(ii)Linac 4+(iii)Basic user’s requestCNGS flux [´1019 pot/year]4.7 (4.5)7.0 (4.5)7.5 (4.5)4.5FT spills [´105 /year]3.2 (3.4)3.0 (5.1)3.2 (5.6)7.2E Hall spills [´106/year]2.3NTOF flux [´1019 pot/year]184.108.40.206ISOLDE flux [μA][no. pulses/hour]3.021262.4517226.221601.9135072 bunch train for LHC at PS exit [´1011 ppb]21.3 (2*)
18●FT + CNGS share SPS cycles Fixed target CNGSBenediktGaroby●FT + CNGS share SPS cyclesFT + CNGSLHC + CNGS●impossible to get closer to FT + CNGS demands ?
19Scope of Future Options BenediktGarobyinterest forLHC upgradeNeutrino physics beyond CNGSRadio-active ion beams (EURISOL)OthersLow energy50 Hz RCS(~ 400 MeV/2.5 GeV)ValuableVery interesting for super-beam+ beta-beamNo?50 Hz SPL(~ 2 GeV )IdealSpare fluxÞ possibility to serve more usersHigh energy8 Hz RCS(30-50 GeV)Very interesting for neutrino factoryNew PS1 TeV LHCinjectorVery interesting for luminosity upgrade.Essential for LHC energyx2synergy
20Strategy (and action) ● start 2004/5: - PS: multi-turn ejection BenediktGaroby● start 2004/5:- PS: multi-turn ejection- increase SPS intensity (impacts all machines)- 0.9s PSB repetition● Linac 4 design construction end 2006● prepare decision on optimum future accelerator- study of a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL)- alternative scenarios for the LHC upgradecontext for SPSC strategy and input
24North: Heavy Ions >2005 Gatignon After the long shut-down ions will be injected into the SPS via LEIR.The LEIR project has been launched for filling the LHC with ions.Filling the SPS instead will require more resources.It should be noted that ion injection via LEIR for fixed target has not yet been studied in depth. More studies are requiredat the source, Linac3, LEIR, PS and at the SPS.If the ions are required for the SPS fixed target program and if therequired resources are made available, one might expect to get:Lead ions from 2009 (after PS-SPS-LHC ions running-in)Other (lighter) ions depending on LHC ion physics program.It should be noted that many relevant non-radioactive ion speciesare possible ‘in principle’, but with significant preparation time and effort.Note that North Area and LHC ions are exclusive if not the same ionPossible intensities are up to 109 Pb54+ from LEIR per transfer (3.6 sec).They can be limited in LEIR with an interlock based on a BCT measurement.Limitation of flux in EHN1 requires new TAX blocks (up to 300 kCHF/beam).
26● to separate or not to separate ? North: Kaons > 2005Gatignon● to separate or not to separate ?- acceptance: unseparated ~ 100 x separated- 109 Hz+ K+ : 6.2% p+: 71.1% p : 22.7%- K- : 6.8% p-: 90.8% p :2.4%> x 40 K+ /year
32● degrader foils RFQD for ATRAP + ATHENA ● decelerator ring ELENA Gatignon● modified extraction● degrader foils RFQD for ATRAP + ATHENA● decelerator ring ELENA5.3 MeV KEp 100 KeV ?-● injection stacking intensity x 2 to 5● PS beam 4 5 bunches intensity x 1.25
33● North Area @ SPS diverse beams ● East Hall @ PS DIRAC + … ? Summary: FT beams● North SPS diverse beams● East PS DIRAC + … ?● CNGS ≥ 2006; improving intensity ?● ions ≥ ~ 2009● CHF ? modernisation● CHF ? new possibilities/opportunities(test beams !)context for SPSC strategy and inputunparalleledvariety
34Gadzicki, Haungs,Lourenco, Riunaud,Satz3. Heavy Ions
40SPSC ● immediate (SPSC) - NA60 - NA49 p+In data open charm, ρ mass, thermal radnPb+Pb highest energy SPS- NA49jet RHIChigh pT SPS ?complete Pb+Pb high pT hadron analysisthen pA referencethen high pT Cronin effectdata taking nowdeclared interestdeclared interest
41- chase and evaluate the critical point @ CERN SPSC● longer term (SPSC)- chase and evaluate the critical CERNestablish optimal theoretical signaturesoptimise experiments for signal and sensitivity- CERN, timely even ≥ 2009, important- ≥2009 CERN FT + LHC HI synergyno overwhelming scientific needfor ion+ion FT < 2009
46Next ? ● CNGS: OPERA ICARUS ● better than hitherto (better than CKM?): MINOS, KamLAND, Borexino?T2K νe appearancenearer, near, and far detectorsβ–beam? CERNFrejus?● θ13 pre-requisite for δ● sign of Δm232 (or Δm132): crucial for Ών● CP-violating phase δ
52“T2K” (Tokai-to-Kamioka) NishikawaLOI: hep-ex/nm beam of ＜1GeVKamiokaSuper-K: 50 ktonWater CherenkovJ-PARC(Tokai-village)0.75 MW 50 (40) GeV PS~Mt “Hyper Kamiokande”4MW 50GeV PSApproved exp (x102 of K2K)nm→ nx disappearancenm→ ne appearanceNC measurementCollaborationFormed in May 200312 countries, 52 institutions148 collaborators (w/o students)Future ExtensionCP violationproton decay
53Strategy High statistics by high intensity n beam NishikawaHigh statistics by high intensity n beamTune En at oscillation maximumSub-GeV n beamLow particle multiplicity suited for Water CherenkovGood En resolution : dominated by nm + n m + pNarrow band beam to reduce BG0.75MW 50GeV-PSOff-Axis n beamSuper-Kamiokande
54T2K Schedule Possible upgrade in future Nishikawa200420052006200720082009K2KT2K constructionphysics runPS commisionningSK full rebuildPossible upgrade in future4MW Super-J-PARC + Hyper-K ( 1Mt water Cherenkov)CP violation in lepton sectorProton Decay
55PPAP Mar. 25 ’04 Neutrino. …oscillations Dave Wark Imperial College/RALDave WarkSlide from M. Lindroos
56PPAP Megatonne ? Mar. 25 ’04 Neutrino. …oscillations Dave Wark Imperial College/RALDave WarkMegatonne ?
58SPL Proposed Roadmap Gilardoni Consistent with the content of a talk by L. Maiani at the “Celebration of the Discovery of the W and Z bosons”. Contribution to a document to be submitted to the December Council (“CERN Future Projects and Associated R&D”).Assumptions:construction of Linac4 in 2007/10 (with complementary resources, before end of LHC payment)construction of SPL in 2008/15 (after end of LHC payments)Linac 4 approvalSPL approvalLHC upgradeR. GarobyWarning: Compressor ring and detector (8 years) are not quoted Protons from the SPL ready in 2015
59SPL SuperBeam FAQ Gilardoni Q: Why 2.2 GeV for the proton driver? A: First design of the SPL which used the LEP cavities.Q: What about increasing the proton energy ?A: Possible up to 3.5 GeV- 4 GeV with some caveats. Energy optimization to tune the proton beam energy is in working stage (see next slides).Q: Is the SPL SuperBeam strongly connected with the Frejus?A: Yes, due to low energy of proton beam no way to go further than 130 km.Q: What if instead of a Cherenkov detector one wants to use a Liquid Argon TPC ?A: Possible if the experts are interested in the location (meaning not going to Japan)
60SPL SuperBeam FAQ … but not first Gilardoni Q: Why proposing the SPL Superbeam if JHF will have similar results?A1: Unique synergy with the Beta BeamA2: Learned from the Japanese style of working, and also from CERN style, every step carries the know-how for the next step. The next could be a NuFact.A3: Different condition to repeat the same measurement. In particular different background.… but not first
61● likelihood improves with synergy ● ν beam R&D for new technology Proton Driver νMezzetto● expensive● likelihood improves with synergy● ν beam R&D for new technology- target- cooling (MICE)● νe - β beamνμ - superbeam● ν Fact
62● ν physics has noble history at CERN SPSC● ν physics has noble history at CERN● ν physics is in a new golden era- CERN beginning again pivotal global role● CNGS commitment to ~ end of decade vitalimportant: COMPASS then end 06- CNGS crucial up to x1019pot/yr)- CNGS + COMPASS ? multi-turn xtractionlonger running period- no compelling case for extending CNGS beyondrealisable pot/yr (< ~ 3x 4.5x1019pot/yr)C2GT
63SPSC● Future neutrino facilities offer great promise for fundamental discoveries (such as CP violation) in neutrino physics, and a post-LHC construction window may exist for a facility to be sited at CERN.● CERN should arrange a budget and personnel to enhance its participation in further developing the physics case and the technologies necessary for the realization of such facilities. This would allow CERN to play a significant role in such projects wherever they are sited.● A high-power proton driver is a main building block of future projects, and is therefore required.● A direct superbeam from a 2.2 GeV SPL does not appear to be the most attractive option for a future CERN neutrino experiment as it does not produce a significant advance on T2K.● We welcome the effort, partly funded by the EU, concerned with the conceptual design of a β-beam. At the same time CERN should support the European neutrino factory initiative in its conceptual design.
64SPSC● Detectors – new detector technologies are necessary to take full advantage of the physics capabilities of future neutrino facilities. Examples of needed advances are cheaper, higher efficiency, large-area, light sensors and magnetized detectors capable of distinguishing electrons from positrons. Given its central role as Europe’s particle physics laboratory, CERN should support, participate, and coordinate such technical developments.● Further hadron production experiments specifically designed to meet the needs of neutrino experiments are essential. There are several existing CERN detectors which could, with some modifications, fulfill this requirement. This would be a scientifically important and cost-effective use of CERN resources.
65The stuff of Nobel Prizes ! D’Hose, DiehlGasser, GninenkoMagnon, MalvezziNemenov, PaulPolyakov, SeymourVestzergombi,5. Soft and Hard Protonspivotal role of CERNThe stuff of Nobel Prizes !
70●DIS: forward * Compton COMPASS beyond …Diehl●DIS: forward * Compton- ∫pdf(x,t)●dt●DVCS: * Compton- pdf(x,t)- p tomography ?partons across prelevant at the time?polarisedd-dunpolarised-
71●ππ and Kπ “atoms” - scattering lengths DIRAC●ππ and Kπ “atoms” - scattering lengths- PT≠ Ke decay● excess at very smallpL and pT“atomic pairs”● data 2001 – 2003 (PS)● setting up 2006 (PS)● running 2007/8 (PS)● planning > 2008 (SPS ?)“free pairs”● experimental = theoretical SPS
72● FT hadron program remains very competitive SPSC● FT hadron program remains very competitive● COMPASS complete in medium term- ΔG/G- transversity, polarisability, spectroscopy- SPSC p.o.t. concern prioritise● COMPASS longer term- GPD measurements would be unique● DIRAC physics important SPS (accuracy)● hadron resonances (pQ) in existing NA49not compelling
73● FT > 2006 encourage multi-turn Xtraction ● FT >> 2006 SPSC● FT 2006: optimise running- start early data for COMPASSoptimise data-taking efficiency- run til CNGS ready● FT > 2006 encourage multi-turn Xtraction● FT >> 2006- intense CERN new lepton-hadron DIS
75- - - - Unique Physics at CERN ● ASACUSA ATRAP ATHENA - “routine” production of H- antiprotonic He = p e - ● deceleration and capture of p● production of H and He- yield !● spectroscopy; ideally 1s 2s- presently quantum state: n~30 !----CPT matter-antimatter
81Precision Spectroscopy Hayano● antiprotonic spectroscopy- large n
82● new experimemts AEGIS ALPHA coming Improvements: ATRAPGabrielseStatus: 4.2 K antiprotons are routinely accumulatedcooling thru matterImprovements?Needed: much lower temperaturesDesired: more antiprotons to speed data accumulationDesired: more antiprotons to improve spectroscopysignal-to-noiseDecelerator? RFQD? ELENA?would give the much larger antiproton rate desiredsmall ring would fit in AD hallnew beam lines would be neededmagnetic fields from experimental apparatussubstantial cost● new experimemts AEGIS ALPHA coming
83ELENABeloshitsky● A small machine for deceleration and cooling of antiprotons after AD to lower energies around 100 keV is feasible.● One to two orders of magnitude more antiprotons can be available for physics.● Main challenges for the low energy decelerator like ultra low vacuum, beam diagnostics and effective electron cooling can be solved, using experience of AD and member-state laboratories where similar low energy ion machines are operational (ASTRID, Aarhus; CRYring, Stockholm).● The machine can be located inside of the AD Hall with only minor modifications and reshuffling of the present installation.● Machine assembling and commissioning can be done without disturbing current AD operation.
84- SPSC ● unique and leading p physics at CERN is foreseeable ● strong encouragement to continue > 2005● improvements in beam switching highly desirable● variety of different measureds for CPT desirable● continue to explore improved trapping techniques- ELENA desirable- ELENA improvement on RFQD …… ?● synergy between experiments always desirable● roadmap should be updated and available
86●experimental challenge BR~ 10-10 to 10-11 Flavour PhysicsIsidoriMangano●precision measurements of rare flavour decays probe the energy scale, and then flavour structure, of new physics- no SM tree- SM suppression- short distance dynamicsFCNC●experimental challenge BR~ to 10-11 10% crucial fornew LHC physics
89“NA48/3” NA48/3 COMPASS p ion ~80 K+ πνν ● 2004 launch GIGATRACKER R&Dvacuum testsevaluate straw trackerstart realistic cost estimationcomplete analysis of beam-test data● 2005complete of the abovecomplete specificationssubmit proposal to SPSC●construction, installation and beam-tests●data takingNA48/3 COMPASSp ion~80 K+ πνν
90high-intensity beam for K+→p+nn experiment Present K12(NA48/2)New HI K+> 2006Factor gainwrt 2004SPS protons per pulse1 x 10123 x 10123.0Duty cycle (s./s.)4.8 / 16.81.0Beam acceptance H,V (mrad) 0.362.4, 2.0Solid angle (msterad) 0.40 1640Av. K+momentum <pK> (GeV/c)6075K+ :p+ :Total : 1.35Momentum band DpK (GeV/c)Eff.: (Dp/p in %)RMS: (Dp/p in %)57 – 63 = 65 4=2.251.5 0.950.3750.30.25Beam size (cm)Area at KABES (cm2) 7.02.5 20 2.8Divergence: RMS (mrad) 0.05 0.1 2PRELIMINARY, WORK IN PROGRESS
91● new rare decay frontier in K physics at CERN SPSC● new rare decay frontier in K physics at CERN● new experiments planned for Kπνν important● support R&D now for K+π +νν results ≤ 2010- no competition … yet!● longer term opportunity for K0π 0νν- direct competition (decay at rest)● synergy with energy LHC CERN- B-physics- LF violation● rare charm decay:feasibility of operating experiment (NA60) ?
92Holzscheiter,IncagliUggerhodj, Zioutas8. Other Projects
93present CERN resource level appropriate Miscellaneous● CAST: astroparticle searches (from axions)best limits in window on axion mass● AD4 p therapydosimetry and monitoring improving● EM physics in crystalstrident production in critical field●(g-2)μ : new experiment appropriateCERN pioneering pedigreeEuropean collaborators ?high intensity μ and ν evaluation-present CERN resource level appropriate
94● fixed target physics at CERN 9. Summary● fixed target physics at CERN- ≤ 2011: physics vibrant, important, leadingSPS p.o.t ? schedule/prioritise/improvecompletion of hadron program essentialCNGS window before T2Khadron production for ν physicsion+ion ≥ 2009 (synergy with LHC)rare flavour ≥ 2009 (synergy with LHC)fundamental physics with p atoms (+medical)-increasing p.o.t
95● fixed target physics at CERN Summary● fixed target physics at CERN- > 2011: physics must be vibrant, important, leadingion+ion ≥ 2009 (synergy with LHC)rare flavour ≥ 2009 (synergy with LHC)fundamental physics with p atomshadron structure: GPDsdynamics: low energy, resonanceν physics: evaluation & CERNp-driver superbeam detectorglobal context NF-… if appropriate ?synergieswith otherscience?SPL?All but HI benefit from/require high intensityRCPSB RCPS …
96to all who contributed to Thanksto all who contributed toour deliberations“Always looking to the future, we pick up bad habits of anticipation.” Philip Larkin