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John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Villars 2004 Report on the SPSC Villars Meeting September 22-28 2004 John Dainton University of.

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Presentation on theme: "John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Villars 2004 Report on the SPSC Villars Meeting September 22-28 2004 John Dainton University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Villars 2004 Report on the SPSC Villars Meeting September John Dainton University of Liverpool, GB (on behalf of the SPSC)

2 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Villars 2004 Report on the SPSC Villars Meeting September John Dainton University of Liverpool, GB (on behalf of the SPSC) 1.Framework 2.Machines and Beams 3.Heavy Ions 4.Neutrinos 5.Soft and Hard Protons 6.Antiproton Physics 7.Flavour Physics 8.Other Topics 9.Summary Note 8/10/04: Overheads are here exactly as presented apart from a small number of bugs which have been fixed, and apart from the inclusion of some overheads skipped in the seminar because of time pressure.

3 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 1. Framework

4 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Charge to review present and future activities and opportunities in fixed-target physics, and to consider possibilities and options for a future fixed target programme at CERN globally important realistic (beams + resources) short, intermediate, and long term from the SPC SPSC not in approval/rejection mode !

5 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Timetable … groups working on fixed target experiments at CERN, and also groups which have in mind the submission of proposals for such experiments, to forward to the SPSC secretariat in due time a short report indicating their ideas and plans for the future SPSC67 April submissions received + COMPASS DIRAC kπ atoms CNGS committed beyond 2005 }

6 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Submissions of Interest Expression of Interest to Measure Rare Kaon Decays at the CERN SPS (NA48-Future Working Group) A New Experimental Programme with Nuclei and Proton Beams at the CERN SPS (M. Gazdzicki for NA49 Colln) Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields - exploring the Schwinger field (U.I. Uggerhoj for NA43 Colln) COMPASS x (A. Magnon for NA58/COMPASS Colln) Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons (R.S. Hayano for AD-3/ASACUSA Colln) Hadron production measurements (J. Panman for PS214/HARP Colln) Possible Future Experimental Searches at CERN in Astroparticle Physics (K. Zioutas for the CAST Colln) Measurement of antimatter gravity with an (anti)matter wave interferometer (C. Regenfus, Physik Inst. Univ. Zürich) Expression of Interest: Study of dimuon and heavy-flavour production in proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions Antihydrogen Laser Experiment Roadmap (J.S. Hangst) R&D for Antimatter Spectroscopy (Neutral Atom Trap (NEAT) Colln)

7 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Timetable cont d May 25-26: CERN SPL Workshop Villars) June 5-8: High Intensity Workshop (INFN) HIF04 Villars) SPSC68 July programme finalised (speakers fixed) September 22 to 28: Villars October: CERN December: report to RB + SPC

8 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Organisation topicchief convenerconveners anti-protonsH Bialkowska R Batley, M de Jong G Hamel de Monchenault neutrinosD WarkM Doser, M Piccolo heavy flavor G Hamel de Monchenault S Forte J Ritman,A Schäfer soft and hard hadrons U Stösslein M Doser, S Forte S Kox Heavy IonsL KlubergI Brock, A Schäfer

9 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Programme [1][1] including presentations by convenors of conclusions concerning physics directions DateMorningAfternoon Wednesday Sept 22CERN persp ve +accel r MMWSPL HIF Heavy Ion 1 Thursday Sept 23Heavy Ion 2Neutrino 1 Friday Sept 24Neutrino 2 Soft and hard hadron physics 1 Saturday Sept 25 Soft and hard hadron physics 2 Anti-proton 1 Sunday Sept 26Anti-proton 2HF 1 Monday Sept 27HF 2 Other Topics Discussion Tuesday Sept 28 Summary, Discussion & Conclusions

10 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Format Topic structure Session 1Session 2 1 keynote speaker(s) for status and outlook including and beyondCERN 2 includes CERN experiment and CERN proto-experiment representatives and, if essential, also summariser(s) from other labs 3 focussing on future strategy 4 first draft of conclusions concerning physics directions Keynote introduction 1 Invited presentations with discussion 2 Further discussion 3 Summary 4 Invited speaker experimentsallconvenors

11 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Documentation Overheads Submitted documents WG Convenor summaries Summary speakers conclusions SPSC conclusions in Chairs seminar overheads Summary of conclusions and recommendations written SPSC members (= convenors + chair)

12 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 2. Machines and Beams Aymar, Benedikt, Cervelli, Elsener, Engelen, Garoby, Gatignon, Palladino

13 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Users View of Future: pre Villars04 USER CERN COMMITMENT* USERS WISHES Short term (low cost) Medium term (interm t cost~ asap ! Long term (high cost: >2013) LHCPlanned beamsUltimate luminosityLuminosity upgrades FT (COMPASS) spills/y ? spills/y CNGS p/yearUpgrade ~ 2 ISOLDE1.92 A **Upgrade ~ 5 Future beams> 2 GeV / 4 MW EURISOL1-2 GeV / 5 MW * Reference value for analysis ** 1350 pulses/h – ppp as heard by HIP from users Garoby

14 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Upgrades beam loss high intensity multi-turn ejection from PS (island extract n ) period 0.6 s 0.9 s ? > cost > worse PSB flexibility better intensity/SPS pulse increase CNGS flux - machine impedance (kickers, RF…) ? - injection energy ? - bunching in the PS ? only Benedikt Garoby

15 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Without upgrades* Basic users request CNGS flux [ pot/year] 4.4*4.2*4.9*4.5 FT spills [ 10 5 /year] E Hall spills [ 10 6 /year] NTOF flux [ pot/year] ISOLDE flux [μA] [no. pulses/hour] bunch train for LHC at PS exit [ ppb] (2**) * with important irrad n of PS equip t ** ultimate beam in LHC Benedikt Garoby

16 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar With upgrades Standard (i) CNGS x2 batch (i)+(ii) Linac 4 (i)+(ii) +(iii) Basic users request CNGS flux [ pot/year] 4.7 (4.5)7.0 (4.5)7.5 (4.5)4.5 FT spills [ 10 5 /year]3.2 (3.4)3.0 (5.1)3.2 (5.6)7.2 E Hall spills [ 10 6 /year]2.3 NTOF flux [ pot/year] ISOLDE flux [μA] [no. pulses/hour] bunch train for LHC at PS exit [ ppb] (2*) (i) PSB repetition period of 0.9 s (ii) 7x10 13 ppp in SPS (iii) Linac4 injecting into PSB Benedikt Garoby

17 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Fixed target CNGS CNGS request pot/year FT request spills/year Without changes Double batch + Linac4 Double batch Benedikt Garoby FT + CNGS share SPS cycles impossible to meet FT + CNGS demands

18 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Fixed target CNGS Benedikt Garoby FT + CNGS share SPS cycles FT + CNGS LHC + CNGS impossible to get closer to FT + CNGS demands ?

19 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Scope of Future Options Benedikt Garoby interest for LHC upgrade Neutrino physics beyond CNGS Radio- active ion beams (EURISOL) Others Low energy 50 Hz RCS (~ 400 MeV/2.5 GeV) Valuable Very interesting for super-beam + beta-beam No? 50 Hz SPL (~ 2 GeV ) Valuable Very interesting for super-beam + beta-beam Ideal Spare flux Þ possibility to serve more users High energy 8 Hz RCS (30-50 GeV) Valuable Very interesting for neutrino factory NoValuable New PS (30-50 GeV) ValuableNo Valuable 1 TeV LHC injector Very interesting for luminosity upgrade. Essential for LHC energyx2 No Valuable synergy

20 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Strategy (and action) Benedikt Garoby start 2004/5: - PS: multi-turn ejection - increase SPS intensity (impacts all machines) - 0.9s PSB repetition Linac 4 design construction end 2006 prepare decision on optimum future accelerator - study of a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) - alternative scenarios for the LHC upgrade context for SPSC strategy and input

21 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar CERN 2004 Gatignon

22 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar North 2004 Gatignon COMPASS

23 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar East 2004 Gatignon

24 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar North: Heavy Ions >2005 After the long shut-down ions will be injected into the SPS via LEIR. The LEIR project has been launched for filling the LHC with ions. Filling the SPS instead will require more resources. If the ions are required for the SPS fixed target program and if the required resources are made available, one might expect to get: Lead ions from 2009 (after PS-SPS-LHC ions running-in) Other (lighter) ions depending on LHC ion physics program. It should be noted that many relevant non-radioactive ion species are possible in principle, but with significant preparation time and effort. Note that North Area and LHC ions are exclusive if not the same ion Possible intensities are up to 10 9 Pb 54+ from LEIR per transfer (3.6 sec). They can be limited in LEIR with an interlock based on a BCT measurement. Limitation of flux in EHN1 requires new TAX blocks (up to 300 kCHF/beam). It should be noted that ion injection via LEIR for fixed target has not yet been studied in depth. More studies are required at the source, Linac3, LEIR, PS and at the SPS. Gatignon

25 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar North: µ & Hadrons Gatignon M2 for COMPASS (approved) - µ 190 GeV/c - 2dary hadrons 280 GeV/c - e ~ 40 GeV/c M2 for COMPASS (future?) - primary p - hyperons M2 intensity ? rebuild CHF radlim CHF

26 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar North: Kaons > 2005 to separate or not to separate ? - acceptance: unseparated ~ 100 x separated Hz + K + : 6.2% + : 71.1% p : 22.7% - K - : 6.8% - : 90.8% p :2.4% > x 40 K + /year Gatignon

27 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar CERN LNGS = CNGS Elsener

28 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar CERN LNGS = CNGS Elsener beam in 2006

29 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar CNGS: making ν Elsener p + C (interactions), K (decay in flight) 700 m 100 m 1000m 67 m largest intensity E ν for ν e ν τ

30 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar CNGS Horizon nominal (1999) - 2.4x10 13 p /extraction - 4.8x10 13 p /cycle - 4.5x10 19 p /year eg 200 days 55% efficiency LHC MD LHC fill FT 2 nd look (2001) - 3.5x10 13 p /extraction - 7x10 13 p /cycle x10 19 p /year target rods ? windows ? heating: target, horn ? shielding ? ? R&D underway NB decommissioning cost >> construction cost X3 ?

31 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar AD Gatignon

32 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar AD >2005 modified extraction degrader foils RFQD for ATRAP + ATHENA decelerator ring ELENA 5.3 MeV KE p 100 KeV ? - injection stacking intensity x 2 to 5 PS beam 4 5 bunches intensity x 1.25 Gatignon

33 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Summary: FT beams North SPS diverse beams East PS DIRAC + … ? CNGS 2006; improving intensity ? ions ~ 2009 CHF ? modernisation CHF ? new possibilities/opportunities (test beams ! ) context for SPSC strategy and input unparalleled variety

34 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 3. Heavy Ions Gadzicki, Haungs, Lourenco, Riunaud, Satz

35 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPbS Panorama B. Mueller The SP[b]S Panorama photons J/ψ chemistry e+e-e+e- HBT spectra exp SPbS + theory QGP

36 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Chromodynamic Phase Equilibria phase transition T Early universe RHIC, LHC B Hadronic matter Critical endpoint Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) Nuclei Chiral symmetry broken Chiral symmetry restored Baryon Dominated HG Meson Dominated HG Color superconductor Neutron stars QGP SPS

37 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Critical Point theoretical guidance model dependent Stephanov

38 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar target box windows 7 In targets z-vertex (cm) Indium beam 158 A GeV Beam tracker station vertex transverse coords determined with pixel telescope + beam tracker to better than 20 mm accuracy interaction z-vtx from rad hard pixel telescope ~ 200 µm accuracy hadronic vertex dimuon vertex (mass > 2 GeV) Heavy Ions + NA60 Pixels NA60 - Lourenco

39 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Low mass dileptons CERES/NA45 NA GeV σ M ee M µµ excess dileptons – thermal radiation ?

40 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPSC immediate (SPSC) - NA60 p+In data open charm, ρ mass, thermal rad n Pb+Pb highest energy SPS - NA49 jet RHIC high p T SPS ? complete Pb+Pb high p T hadron analysis then pA reference then high p T Cronin effect data taking now declared interest

41 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPSC longer term (SPSC) - chase and evaluate the critical CERN establish optimal theoretical signatures optimise experiments for signal and sensitivity - CERN, timely even 2009, important CERN FT + LHC HI synergy no overwhelming scientific need for ion+ion FT < 2009

42 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 4. Neutrinos Blondel, Declais, Dydak, Gilardoni, Haseroth, Lindroos, Mezzeto, Mosca Nishikawa, Panman, Romanino, Rubbia

43 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 71±5 Early Solar Neutrino Exps. SNO SuperK Soudan II MACRO KamLAND K2K LSND ν-oscillations Wark New KamLAND Super-K L/E

44 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Eigenstates uniquely defines the labelling can have both signs: by definition, Normal normal Normal inverted e.g.: (inverse hierarchical) (degenerate) e.g.: (hierarchical) (degenerate) (neither) Romanino

45 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Hierarchy ~sin 2 23 Solar + KamLAND Super-K Wark remarkable progress

46 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Next ? CNGS: OPERA ICARUS better than hitherto (better than CKM ? ): MINOS, KamLAND, Borexino ? T2K ν e appearance nearer, near, and far detectors β–beam ? CERN Frejus ? θ 13 pre-requisite for δ sign of Δm 23 2 (or Δm 13 2 ): crucial for Ώ ν CP-violating phase δ

47 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Next ? Mezzetto

48 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar OPERA Pb Emulsion layers 1 mm Plastic base for the full detector: 2 supermodules 31 walls / supermodule 52 x 64 bricks /wall bricks 56 emulsion films / brick ~2 kTon (Pb) 0.04 kTon emulsion 9 kt-yr Δm 2 =1.2x10 -3 eV events Δm 2 =2.4x10 -3 eV 2 11 events Δm 2 =5.4x10 -3 eV 2 54 events ready end 2006

49 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar ICARUS muon spectrometer 2 kton Fe B=1.8 T 3m 3 kt in LNGS 2005 ? LAr drift

50 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar ICARUS Wire coord. (m) Drift Coord. (m) Zoom View 3.9 m 1.3 m Full 2D view from the Collection Wire Plane T600 test: Run Evt 7 ultimate vertex resolution: T600 ready … LNGS

51 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar T2K

52 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar beam of 1GeV Kamioka J-PARC (Tokai-village) x x disappearance e e appearance NC measurement 0.75 MW 50 (40) GeV PS Super-K: 50 kton Water Cherenkov ~Mt Hyper Kamiokande 4MW 50GeV PS CP violation proton decay Approved exp (x10 2 of K2K) Future Extension T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) LOI: hep-ex/ hep-ex/ Collaboration Formed in May countries, 52 institutions 148 collaborators (w/o students) Nishikawa

53 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Strategy High statistics by high intensity beam Tune E at oscillation maximum Sub-GeV beam Low particle multiplicity suited for Water Cherenkov Good E resolution : dominated by n p Narrow band beam to reduce BG 0.75MW 50GeV-PS Off-Axis beam Super-Kamiokande Nishikawa

54 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar T2K Schedule Possible upgrade in future 4MW Super-J-PARC + Hyper-K ( 1Mt water Cherenkov) CP violation in lepton sector Proton Decay SK full rebuild T2K construction physics run K2K 2009 PS commisionning Nishikawa

55 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Neutrino. PPAP Mar …oscillations Imperial College/RAL Dave Wark Slide from M. Lindroos

56 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Neutrino. PPAP Mar …oscillations Imperial College/RAL Dave Wark Megatonne ?

57 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar θ 13 CP sensitivity Towards NF Horizon SPL superbeam ?

58 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPL Proposed Roadmap Consistent with the content of a talk by L. Maiani at the Celebration of the Discovery of the W and Z bosons. Contribution to a document to be submitted to the December Council (CERN Future Projects and Associated R&D). Assumptions: construction of Linac4 in 2007/10 (with complementary resources, before end of LHC payment) construction of SPL in 2008/15 (after end of LHC payments) Linac 4 approval SPL approval LHC upgrade R. Garoby Warning: Compressor ring and detector (8 years) are not quoted Protons from the SPL ready in 2015 Gilardoni

59 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPL SuperBeam FAQ Q: Why 2.2 GeV for the proton driver? A: First design of the SPL which used the LEP cavities. Q: What about increasing the proton energy ? A:Possible up to 3.5 GeV- 4 GeV with some caveats. Energy optimization to tune the proton beam energy is in working stage (see next slides). Q: Is the SPL SuperBeam strongly connected with the Frejus? A: Yes, due to low energy of proton beam no way to go further than 130 km. Q: What if instead of a Cherenkov detector one wants to use a Liquid Argon TPC ? A: Possible if the experts are interested in the location (meaning not going to Japan) Gilardoni

60 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPL SuperBeam FAQ Q: Why proposing the SPL Superbeam if JHF will have similar results? A1: Unique synergy with the Beta Beam A2: Learned from the Japanese style of working, and also from CERN style, every step carries the know-how for the next step. The next could be a NuFact. A3: Different condition to repeat the same measurement. In particular different background. Gilardoni … but not first

61 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Proton Driver ν expensive likelihood improves with synergy ν beam R&D for new technology - target - cooling (MICE) ν e - β beam ν μ - superbeam ν Fact Mezzetto

62 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPSC ν physics has noble history at CERN ν physics is in a new golden era - CERN beginning again pivotal global role CNGS commitment to ~ end of decade vital important: COMPASS then end 06 - CNGS crucial up to x10 19 pot/yr) - CNGS + COMPASS ? multi-turn xtraction longer running period - no compelling case for extending CNGS beyond realisable pot/yr (< ~ 3x 4.5x10 19 pot/yr) C2GT

63 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPSC Future neutrino facilities offer great promise for fundamental discoveries (such as CP violation) in neutrino physics, and a post-LHC construction window may exist for a facility to be sited at CERN. CERN should arrange a budget and personnel to enhance its participation in further developing the physics case and the technologies necessary for the realization of such facilities. This would allow CERN to play a significant role in such projects wherever they are sited. A high-power proton driver is a main building block of future projects, and is therefore required. A direct superbeam from a 2.2 GeV SPL does not appear to be the most attractive option for a future CERN neutrino experiment as it does not produce a significant advance on T2K. We welcome the effort, partly funded by the EU, concerned with the conceptual design of a β-beam. At the same time CERN should support the European neutrino factory initiative in its conceptual design.

64 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPSC Detectors – new detector technologies are necessary to take full advantage of the physics capabilities of future neutrino facilities. Examples of needed advances are cheaper, higher efficiency, large- area, light sensors and magnetized detectors capable of distinguishing electrons from positrons. Given its central role as Europes particle physics laboratory, CERN should support, participate, and coordinate such technical developments. Further hadron production experiments specifically designed to meet the needs of neutrino experiments are essential. There are several existing CERN detectors which could, with some modifications, fulfill this requirement. This would be a scientifically important and cost-effective use of CERN resources.

65 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 5. Soft and Hard Protons DHose, Diehl Gasser, Gninenko Magnon, Malvezzi Nemenov, Paul Polyakov, Seymour Vestzergombi, pivotal role of CERN The stuff of Nobel Prizes !

66 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Hadron Physics H1 ZEUS - DESY GSI energy frontier colliders precision frontier colliders + FT intensity frontier theoretical symbiosis - lattice - ChPT - pQCD BABAR - SLAC CDF D0 - FNAL

67 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar COMPASS 1996: proposal 1997: conditional approval 1999 – 2000: construction and installation 2001: commissioning run : data taking µp and µp precision hadron structure - nucleon spin structure (valence sea) precision hadron dynamics - pQCD n-pQCD (Q 2 p T 2 ) - resonant phenomena into the future: GPDs and precision st. functions gluons approved

68 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar COMPASS ΔG/G finding charm c c σ(ΔG/G) proposal = σ(ΔG/G) = h h Leading process h h Gluon radiation (Compton) h h Photon Gluon Fusion (PGF) ΔG/G from high p T hadrons pairs

69 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar COMPASS Hadron (2004) PT: Primakoff resonance -diffractive - Primakoff - central: glue enriched (WA102 …) - D* D s * ( FOCUS, B A B AR, Belle, CLEO, SELEX) - Λ c * … - Ξ cc localised (cc) excitation against light u/d fast slow 270 GeV p + vertex detector 150 days/year

70 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar COMPASS beyond … DIS: forward * Compton - pdf(x,t) dt DVCS: * Compton - pdf(x,t) - p tomography ? partons across p unpolarised polarised d-d Diehl - relevant at the time?

71 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar DIRAC atomic pairs free pairs ππ and Kπ atoms - scattering lengths - PT data 2001 – 2003 (PS) setting up 2006 (PS) running 2007/8 (PS) planning > 2008 (SPS ?) excess at very small p L and p T experimental = theoretical SPS K e decay

72 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPSC FT hadron program remains very competitive COMPASS complete in medium term - ΔG/G - transversity, polarisability, spectroscopy - SPSC p.o.t. concern prioritise COMPASS longer term - GPD measurements would be unique DIRAC physics important SPS (accuracy) hadron resonances (pQ) in existing NA49 not compelling

73 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPSC FT 2006: optimise running - start early data for COMPASS optimise data-taking efficiency - run til CNGS ready FT > 2006 encourage multi-turn Xtraction FT >> intense CERN new lepton-hadron DIS

74 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 6. Antiproton Physics Beloshitzky Gabrielse, Hangst Hayano, Jungmann Kostelecky, Quint Regenfus, Testera Widmann, Yamazaki

75 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Unique Physics at CERN ASACUSA ATRAP ATHENA - routine production of H - antiprotonic He = p e - deceleration and capture of p production of H and He - yield ! spectroscopy; ideally 1s 2s - presently quantum state: n~30 ! CPT matter-antimatter

76 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Unique Ac Decelerator Gatignon

77 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar fibers 77 K BGO 77 K antiprotons positron source positron traps antiproton traps rotating electrode 5.3 Tesla magnetic field 4.2 K Harvard: Trap, vacuum, rf electronics, … Juelich: Scintillation detectors Small View ATRAP trap and detectors Gabrielse

78 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar ATHENA annihilation of e + and p - - detects H - insensitive to H velocity and state - -

79 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar ASACUSA Balmer lines + Q p /M p Hayano

80 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Cooling before Capture + R&D developments Hayano

81 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Precision Spectroscopy antiprotonic spectroscopy - large n Hayano

82 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Improvements: ATRAP Status: 4.2 K antiprotons are routinely accumulated cooling thru matter Improvements? Needed: much lower temperatures Desired: more antiprotons to speed data accumulation Desired: more antiprotons to improve spectroscopy signal-to-noise Decelerator? RFQD? ELENA? would give the much larger antiproton rate desired small ring would fit in AD hall new beam lines would be needed magnetic fields from experimental apparatus substantial cost Gabrielse new experimemts AEGIS ALPHA coming

83 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar ELENA A small machine for deceleration and cooling of antiprotons after AD to lower energies around 100 keV is feasible. One to two orders of magnitude more antiprotons can be available for physics. Main challenges for the low energy decelerator like ultra low vacuum, beam diagnostics and effective electron cooling can be solved, using experience of AD and member-state laboratories where similar low energy ion machines are operational (ASTRID, Aarhus; CRYring, Stockholm). The machine can be located inside of the AD Hall with only minor modifications and reshuffling of the present installation. Machine assembling and commissioning can be done without disturbing current AD operation. Beloshitsky

84 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPSC unique and leading p physics at CERN is foreseeable strong encouragement to continue > 2005 improvements in beam switching highly desirable variety of different measureds for CPT desirable continue to explore improved trapping techniques - ELENA desirable - ELENA improvement on RFQD …… ? synergy between experiments always desirable roadmap should be updated and available -

85 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 7. Flavour Physics Ceccucci, Isidori Inagaki, Littenberg Lourenco, Nakada Sozzi, Tschirhart

86 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Flavour Physics precision measurements of rare flavour decays probe the energy scale, and then flavour structure, of new physics - no SM tree - SM suppression - short distance dynamics Isidori Mangano FCNC experimental challenge BR~ to % crucial for new LHC physics

87 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar The Challenge theory uncertainty Isidori

88 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Landscape Mangano

89 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar NA48/3 ~80 K + πνν 2004 launch GIGATRACKER R&D vacuum tests evaluate straw tracker start realistic cost estimation complete analysis of beam-test data 2005 complete of the above complete specifications submit proposal to SPSC construction, installation and beam-tests data taking p ion NA48/3 COMPASS

90 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Beam: Present K12 (NA48/2) New HI K + > 2006 Factor gain wrt 2004 SPS protons per pulse1 x x Duty cycle (s./s.) 4.8 / Beam acceptance H,V (mrad) , 2.0 Solid angle ( sterad) Av. K + momentum (GeV/c) 6075 K + : : 1.35 Total : 1.35 Momentum band p K (GeV/c) Eff.: ( p/p in %) RMS: ( p/p in %) 57 – 63 = = Beam size (cm) Area at KABES (cm 2 ) Divergence: RMS (mrad) high-intensity beam for K + + experiment PRELIMINARY, WORK IN PROGRESS

91 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar SPSC new rare decay frontier in K physics at CERN new experiments planned for K πνν important support R&D now for K + π + νν results no competition … yet! longer term opportunity for K 0 π 0 νν - direct competition (decay at rest) synergy with energy LHC CERN - B-physics - LF violation rare charm decay: feasibility of operating experiment (NA60) ?

92 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 8. Other Projects Holzscheiter,Incagli Uggerhodj, Zioutas

93 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Miscellaneous CAST: astroparticle searches (from axions) best limits in window on axion mass AD4 p therapy dosimetry and monitoring improving EM physics in crystals trident production in critical field (g-2)μ : new experiment appropriate CERN pioneering pedigree European collaborators ? high intensity μ and ν evaluation present CERN resource level appropriate -

94 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar 9. Summary fixed target physics at CERN : physics vibrant, important, leading SPS p.o.t ? schedule/prioritise/improve completion of hadron program essential CNGS window before T2K hadron production for ν physics ion+ion 2009 (synergy with LHC) rare flavour 2009 (synergy with LHC) fundamental physics with p atoms (+medical) - increasing p.o.t

95 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Summary All but HI benefit from/require high intensity RCPSB RCPS … fixed target physics at CERN - > 2011: physics must be vibrant, important, leading ion+ion 2009 (synergy with LHC) rare flavour 2009 (synergy with LHC) fundamental physics with p atoms hadron structure: GPDs dynamics: low energy, resonance ν physics: evaluation & CERN p-driver superbeam detector global context NF - … if appropriate ? synergies with other science? SPL?

96 John Dainton Villars 2004 October 7th 2004 CERN seminar Thanks Always looking to the future, we pick up bad habits of anticipation. Philip Larkin to all who contributed to our deliberations


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