The primary value chain activities (Porter, 1985) Inbound Logistics: the receiving and warehousing of raw materials, and their distribution to manufacturing as they are required. Operations: the processes of transforming inputs into finished products and services. Outbound Logistics: the warehousing and distribution of finished goods. Marketing & Sales: the identification of customer needs and the generation of sales. Service: the support of customers after the products and services are sold to them.
Supporting activities (Porter, 1985) The infrastructure of the firm: organizational structure, control systems, company culture, etc. Human resource management: employee recruiting, hiring, training, development, and compensation. Technology development: technologies to support value-creating activities. Procurement: purchasing inputs such as materials, supplies, and equipment.
Value Chain Definition Profit depends on its effectiveness in performing these activities the amount that the customer is willing to pay for the products exceeds the cost of the activities in the value chain. A competitive advantage can be achieved by reconfiguring the value chain The value chain model is a useful analysis tool for defining a firm's core competencies and the activities: –Cost advantage: by better understanding costs and squeezing them out of the value-adding activities. –Differentiation: by focusing on those activities associated with core competencies and capabilities in order to perform them better than do competitors.
Changes in Value Chain (Kalakota & Robinson 2001) Core competence of the company Firm infrastructure and processes Products & Services Distribution channels Customers Core competence of the company and outsourcing Flexible infrastructure and processes Products & Services Integrated distribution channels Needs of customer Traditional value chain Changed value chain
Digital Value Chain How business creates value in both the physical and virtual level? Interpret differences and interactions among the value adding events of the physical and virtual level Create valuable digital assets that change the competitive dynamics of industries (Sviokla and Rayport, 1996)
Virtual Value Chain (Rayport, Sviokla, 1996) Visibility: is where businesses co- ordinate, measure and sometimes control business processes Mirroring capability: physical steps in the value chain may be substituted with virtual ones –In banking, whereas banks offered a limited portfolio of services Companies use the flow of information in their virtual value chain to create new customer relationships by delivering value to customers in new ways –E.g. FedEx, package tracking
Intermediation & Disintermediation Approaches to change the value chain Business that had previously sold to retailers via distributors could take a decision to sell direct electronically, an approach known as Disintermediation By shortening the Value Chain, there may be benefits in reduced costs or a more responsive and efficient service
Reintermediation eBusiness allows the apparent opposite of Disintermediation in which a new step or steps are introduced to the value chain to add value to the process. This is known as Reintermediation and examples here include shopping portals and electronic insurance brokers.
Business Model Business model is an architecture for product, service and information flow, including description of the various business partners and their roles. It also contains a description of potential benefits for the actors and a description of the sources of revenue Existing business need to use the Internet to build on their current business model, while at the same time experimenting with new business models to gain a competitive advantage over competitors
E-Business Model E-business is defined as the transformation of key business processes through the use the Internet technologies When a company has integrated information and communications technologies (ICTs) into its operations, potentially redesigning its business processes around ICT, then company has adopted a new business model (Source: Chaffey, 2002)
Components of Business Model Value Proposition Online Offering Resource System Revenue Model Source: Rayport & Jaworski, 2004
Value Proposition Value proposition is constructed from three things: 1.target segmentation 2.focal customer benefits, 3.the key resource of the business that can help deliver the benefit package in significantly better way than its competitors However, the value cluster approach in online businesses has acquired customisation capabilities that allow them to address multiple customer segments and offer a variety of benefits
Online offering After the value proposition has been defined, the next step is to decide products, services and information for the online offering three sequential tasks must be completed : 1.identify the scope of the offering, 2.identify the customer decision-making process, 3.map the online offerings to the customer decision process
Resource System The resource system shows how a company must select its allies and partners in a business web to deliver the benefits of the value proposition or cluster Business web (b-web) is a distinct system of suppliers, distributors, commerce service providers, infrastructure providers and customers that use internet for their primary business communications and transactions
Revenue Model It is often difficult to align the revenue model to company’s value proposition and online offering Companies are trying to figure out what their customers are willing to pay for, and how much they are willing to pay
Sources of revenue Advertising. A particular site derives revenue through the sales of advertisements, banners, site sponsorships, event underwriting or other forms of communication. Product, service or information sales. The income is generated from the sale of goods on the site. Transaction. The revenue is accrued from charging a fee or taking a portion based cost from transactions. Subscription. Information and service are a provided on the subscription basis where and access relationship is created on the basis of a fee. Licence fee. Content is licensed for use for a fee.
Example: Revenue Model for music (see next 2 slides) Record company’s share of revenues: –Traditional CD = 12% –Digital download = 47% Music price for customer: –Cost of traditional cd =17$ –Digital download (depends amount of songs, normally 12- 14 songs, each 1$, totally ~ 14$) WIN –WIN situation for both, record company and customer. But who loses?
Revenue model for a CD (Source: keepmusiccoming.com)
Revenue model for US digital download (Source: FAD Research, 2004)
Business Model Strategy (Source: www.e-future.ca)