2 Erikson (psychosocial) Defines toddlerhood as a time of autonomy versus shame and doubt:Toddler ready to give up dependency and assert his sense of control.Toddler may easily change from happy and pleasant to crying and screamingExertion of independence results in favorite response: “NO” even when he means “Yes”Negativism: “NO” is a normal part of healthy development
3 Piaget (cognitive) Sensorimotor stage (12-24 months) Domestic Mimicry: Delayed imitation (household task)Dramatic Play (Imitate life with appropriate toys: bowl: eat/hatStarts to think before actingCapable of following simple directions
4 Social/Emotional Development Child will be curious and energetic but depends on an adult’s presence for reassuranceChild is very attached to and dependent on parents and likely afraid of separation from parentChild will imitate actions and games of othersChild enjoys playing with an adult and likes repetitive gamesStart being choosey about what he/she eatsChild will want to get things right and can experience unbearable frustration if they can’t achieve mastery over a task.
6 Developing Understanding Toddlers have no concept of time and distanceCan sort objects into understandable groupsLittle understanding of time so they can’t understand what tomorrow meansRecognize similarities and differences in thingsRemember and copy past events – Improvement in memory
7 Physical SkillsRapidly increasing movement from scooting along, crawling, teetering, to walking confident
9 Language DevelopmentNumber of words used increases greatly; between 18 months to 2 years toddlers use as many as 100 or more wordsLanguage understanding improves so toddler can remember two things at a timeToddlers begin to use words to say how they feelBy two years toddlers begin to tell people what he/she wants them to doToddlers often get frustrated because they can’t say as much as they want to – or because you don’t understand what they are sayingRepeat back what they say in your replies
11 ToiletingMany parents are eager for children to start being potty- trainedThere is not one “right” way or one “right” age to learnChildren around the age of 18 months to 2 years old start to become aware of when they need to use the bathroomMost children are potty trained by the age of 3 to 3 1/2
12 Play Time Hand-eye coordination starts to improve Match and fit simple blocks and puzzlesSimple make believe playThrow and kick ballsListen to music and dance
13 Parenting Read to your child every day American Academy of Pediatrics says it’s better if children under 24 months don’t watch any TVAsk child to name body parts or name/find objectsBasic puzzlesAllow child to do new activities
14 Water SafetyNever leave your child alone around water, even for a momentBathtubs, pools, lakesMake sure that child cannot get to nearby sources of waterFence and locked gate around poolsDon’t underestimate child’s curiosity. If you leave child unsupervised for even a short amount of time, child may open door and wander out to nearby pool or pond.
15 Safety Around the House With movement and independence child will begin to explore widely, pulling open every handle, and twiddling every knobPut things up high that you don’t want child to get intoUse safety locksMedicines, chemicals, appliancesSharp objects such as scissors, pens, knivesCover outlets
16 Safety in the CarKeep child in rear-facing car seat for as long as you canUntil child gets to height/weight limit for specific seatOnce your child outgrows rear-facing seat, use a front facing seat that has a harnessNever leave a child in a car by himself, or herself, even for just a few seconds!
17 Healthy Eating Give child water or milk instead of juice or soda Juice and soda are unhealthy because they have a lot of sugarRelative to their size, toddlers eat less than infants because they are not growing as quicklyDon’t fight with child over food. Punishing a toddler when he or she does not eat what you want can make it even harder to get child to eat good thingsGive some healthy options and let child choseRemove distractions while the toddler is eating.Continue to offer child new foods. It takes children a while to get used to some foods.
18 Things to RememberChildren grow at different rates and different timesToddlerhood is a time of great growth, development, and exploringEmotions and mood can change quickly from happy to frustrated to angryHave a strong attachment to parents/likely to be afraid of strangersChildren love to copy others