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Child Development One to two years old.

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Presentation on theme: "Child Development One to two years old."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development One to two years old

2 Erikson (psychosocial)
Defines toddlerhood as a time of autonomy versus shame and doubt: Toddler ready to give up dependency and assert his sense of control. Toddler may easily change from happy and pleasant to crying and screaming Exertion of independence results in favorite response: “NO” even when he means “Yes” Negativism: “NO” is a normal part of healthy development

3 Piaget (cognitive) Sensorimotor stage (12-24 months)
Domestic Mimicry: Delayed imitation (household task) Dramatic Play (Imitate life with appropriate toys: bowl: eat/hat Starts to think before acting Capable of following simple directions

4 Social/Emotional Development
Child will be curious and energetic but depends on an adult’s presence for reassurance Child is very attached to and dependent on parents and likely afraid of separation from parent Child will imitate actions and games of others Child enjoys playing with an adult and likes repetitive games Start being choosey about what he/she eats Child will want to get things right and can experience unbearable frustration if they can’t achieve mastery over a task.


6 Developing Understanding
Toddlers have no concept of time and distance Can sort objects into understandable groups Little understanding of time so they can’t understand what tomorrow means Recognize similarities and differences in things Remember and copy past events – Improvement in memory

7 Physical Skills Rapidly increasing movement from scooting along, crawling, teetering, to walking confident


9 Language Development Number of words used increases greatly; between 18 months to 2 years toddlers use as many as 100 or more words Language understanding improves so toddler can remember two things at a time Toddlers begin to use words to say how they feel By two years toddlers begin to tell people what he/she wants them to do Toddlers often get frustrated because they can’t say as much as they want to – or because you don’t understand what they are saying Repeat back what they say in your replies


11 Toileting Many parents are eager for children to start being potty- trained There is not one “right” way or one “right” age to learn Children around the age of 18 months to 2 years old start to become aware of when they need to use the bathroom Most children are potty trained by the age of 3 to 3 1/2

12 Play Time Hand-eye coordination starts to improve
Match and fit simple blocks and puzzles Simple make believe play Throw and kick balls Listen to music and dance

13 Parenting Read to your child every day
American Academy of Pediatrics says it’s better if children under 24 months don’t watch any TV Ask child to name body parts or name/find objects Basic puzzles Allow child to do new activities

14 Water Safety Never leave your child alone around water, even for a moment Bathtubs, pools, lakes Make sure that child cannot get to nearby sources of water Fence and locked gate around pools Don’t underestimate child’s curiosity. If you leave child unsupervised for even a short amount of time, child may open door and wander out to nearby pool or pond.

15 Safety Around the House
With movement and independence child will begin to explore widely, pulling open every handle, and twiddling every knob Put things up high that you don’t want child to get into Use safety locks Medicines, chemicals, appliances Sharp objects such as scissors, pens, knives Cover outlets

16 Safety in the Car Keep child in rear-facing car seat for as long as you can Until child gets to height/weight limit for specific seat Once your child outgrows rear-facing seat, use a front facing seat that has a harness Never leave a child in a car by himself, or herself, even for just a few seconds!

17 Healthy Eating Give child water or milk instead of juice or soda
Juice and soda are unhealthy because they have a lot of sugar Relative to their size, toddlers eat less than infants because they are not growing as quickly Don’t fight with child over food. Punishing a toddler when he or she does not eat what you want can make it even harder to get child to eat good things Give some healthy options and let child chose Remove distractions while the toddler is eating. Continue to offer child new foods. It takes children a while to get used to some foods.

18 Things to Remember Children grow at different rates and different times Toddlerhood is a time of great growth, development, and exploring Emotions and mood can change quickly from happy to frustrated to angry Have a strong attachment to parents/likely to be afraid of strangers Children love to copy others

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