Presentation on theme: "Keith Hiscock Marine Biological Association Plymouth."— Presentation transcript:
Keith Hiscock Marine Biological Association Plymouth
Making BAP criteria work for marine conservation means that the criteria identify species and habitats that: 1.Are scientifically credible to scientists (so that they can support the resulting lists of species and habitats). 2.Are understandable/sensible for decision makers (so that they can accept the constraints on development). 3.Help to achieve the objectives/requirements of directives, conventions and statutes. It is a bonus if the criteria identify species and habitats that: 1. We can take action to improve their status.
As well as BAP, now: NIMF – Nationally Important Marine Features, which are: See: Connor et al Rationale and criteria for the identification of nationally important marine nature conservation features and areas in the UK. Version Unpublished. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. (Available from: Areas that best represent the range of seascapes, habitats and species present in the UK – the UKs marine biodiversity heritage. Seascapes, habitats and species for which we have a special responsibility in a national, regional or global context. Seascapes, habitats and species that have suffered significant decline in their extent or quality, or are threatened with such decline, and can thus be defined as being in poor status.
So, the presentation: 1.Recent imperatives for marine – OSPAR, Johannesburg, Marine Bill. 2.Context – how many marine species and habitats? 3.Credibility - new tools for marine biodiversity conservation since the mid-90s. 4.Applying Nationally Important Marine Features (NIMF) and Degree of Threat criteria to identify candidate biotopes and species – experience from doing it. 5.Incorporating NIMF and BAP species and habitats into decision making for marine environmental management and protection. 6.On the horizon – new approaches that include NIMF and BAP species and habitats to identify marine biodiversity hotspots. 7.Information and skills gaps to be filled – what we need to do – and what we need not to do.
ANNEX V On the Protection and Conservation of the Ecosystems and Biological Diversity of the Maritime Area (OSPAR has generated criteria for the identification of marine protected areas and lists of threatened habitats and species) Recent imperatives: (OSPAR has recommended the establishment by 2010 of an ecologically coherent network of well-managed marine protected areas )
32. … promote the conservation and management of the oceans through …: (c) … the establishment of marine protected areas consistent with international law and based on scientific information, including representative networks by 2012 … (d) … develop national regional and international programmes for halting the loss of marine biodiversity… Recent imperatives:
How many marine species? Numbers of marine species in major groups in Britain & Ireland (excluding viruses, bacteria, cyanobacteria, & fungi) See: 8, 229 multicellular marine species listed in the Species Directory for Britain and Ireland.
How many marine habitats? 262/370 biotopes (at Level 4/5) in the 2004 classification (Connor et al See: Biotopes are the most common level at which habitats are classified: A biotope is: The smallest geographical unit of the biosphere or of a habitat that can be delimited by convenient boundaries and is characterized by its biota (Lincoln et al., 1998). Phymatolithon calcareum maerl beds with hydroids and echinoderms in deeper infralittoral clean gravel or coarse sand (Code: IGS.Phy.HEc). Image: Keith Hiscock
New tools since the mid-90s: the Species Directory (1997/99) Now getting out-of-date and in need of replacement (NBN Species Dictionary or European Register of Marine Species?)
New tools since the mid 90s: The Britain and Ireland biotopes classification (Connor et al and See:
New tools since the mid 90s: Identifying sensitivity and threat of significant decline (MarLIN Biology and Sensitivity Key Information for species and biotopes) Hiscock, K. & Tyler-Walters, H Identifying sensitivity in marine ecosystems: the MarLIN programme. Hydrobiologia, 555,
New tools since the mid 90s: Criteria for the identification of Important Marine Areas* Typicalness Naturalness Size Biological diversity Critical area Area important for a priority marine feature * Defra, Review of Marine Conservation – Working Group report to Government. PB London, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. countryside/ewd/rmnc/pdf/rmnc-report-0704.pdf Features that qualify as special features or which are declined or threatened should contribute to the identification of these areas. Encompasses OSPAR criteria: THREATENED OR DECLINING SPECIES AND HABITATS/BIOTOPES. [Include Rarity as information on decline is often lacking.] and IMPORTANT SPECIES AND HABITATS/BIOTOPES. [Refers to global (Proportional importance) and UK (Regional importance) distribution and population numbers.] and SENSITIVITY.
New tools since the mid 90s: Criteria for identifying Nationally Important Marine Features Defra, Review of Marine Conservation – Working Group report to Government. PB London, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. CRITERION 1: Proportional Importance A high proportion of the populations of a species occurs within the UK. Species are categorised as follows: Global importance: a high (>25%) proportion of the global population of a species occurs within the UK. Regional importance: a high (>30%) proportion of the regional (NE Atlantic within the OSPAR area) population of a species. CRITERION 2: Rarity Marine species that are sessile or of restricted mobility are considered nationally rare if distribution is restricted to eight or less 10km squares (0.5%) within the 3 mile territorial seas limit of UK waters. A mobile species qualifies as nationally rare if the total population size is known, inferred or suspected to be fewer than 250 mature individuals. Outside of inshore areas, sparse survey data makes it difficult to apply quantitative criteria and expert judgement is used. CRITERION 3: Decline An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected significant decline (exceeding expected or known natural fluctuations) in numbers, extent or quality of a marine species in the UK (quality refers to life history parameters). Decline should be at least 25% in the past 25 years where figures are available. CRITERION 4: Threat of decline It is estimated, inferred or suspected that a species will suffer a significant decline in the foreseeable future as a result of human activity. (Factors included for Biodiversity Action Plans: 1. It is predicted that the species will decline by 50% in a current 25 year period, or in the next 25 years; 2. The species is believed to be long-lived (>25 years) with a low recovery potential and if action is not taken to reverse current trends then the species is likely to become extinct in the next 100 years.) Species
How many species and habitats? 254 marine Species of Conservation Concern (i.e. listed on conventions, directives and statutes) (information from JNCC) 8,229 multicellular marine species listed in the Species Directory for Britain and Ireland. (About 1/7 of terrestrial & freshwater numbers.) 47 marine species listed in Annex II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive 19 marine species (84 including grouped species) and 18 habitats (plus 6 broad habitats) listed in the 1999 Biodiversity Action Plan. 402 candidate NIMF and 119 candidate (of which 57 are existing) BAP species in the recent MBA review to JNCC. (Not including sharks, skates & rays.) 52 candidate NIMF and 72 candidate BAP habitats in the recent MBA review. (Existing 18 BAP habitats are additional)
Numbers of species in major groups: Numbers of marine species in major groups in Britain & Ireland (excluding viruses, bacteria, cyanobacteria, & fungi) See:
Initial numbers of candidate species submitted to JNCC from MBA-led review. (Sharks, skates and rays to be added)
Threat of significant decline criteria Particularly important for fragile species with short-lived propagules and/or that are long-lived, slow growing and may recruit infrequently Note: whilst marine habitats are well connected by the sea – that only benefits species with planktonic propagules and highly mobile species. Networks of marine protected areas do not work for most of the species that qualify under Threat of significant decline. Sunset coral. Larva short- lived, settles very near parent. Branching axinellid sponges. Very slow-growing & long-lived? (No colonisation new surfaces). Fan mussel. Very long-lived larva. Devastated by mobile fishing gear. Mpa network needed?
Incorporating NIMF into decision-making Adapted from: Hiscock, K. & Tyler- Walters, H Identifying sensitivity in marine ecosystems: the MarLIN programme. Hydrobiologia, 555,
Identifying hotspots Part species and biotope richnessNot endemism Takes account of NIMF Work currently underway by the MBA for WWF-UK: Workshop in Bristol on 26 July 2006
Issues: to resolve in identification of NIMF and BAP species and habitats 1. Uneven coverage due to differing points-of-view from expert advisors. Most points-of-view concern rarity including concepts of naturally rare and issues of under-recorded. 3. Habitats Directive Annex 1 marine habitats too broad – most biotopes would qualify for BAP under Habitat for which the UK has international obligations criterion. 4. And, just because its a habitat in the Habitats Directive, does not necessarily mean that it has any special merit for protection – ross worm Sabellaria spinulosa reefs and Shallow sandbanks slightly covered by seawater …. 2. Some potential expert advisors too busy to advise.
Issues: Applying criteria to old data Marine is different to terrestrial: many marine habitats are in a close to natural state (not being managed to prevent succession) and the associated species and biotopes do not change greatly from year-to-year. Return to the same location, and youll find much the same biotopes and species: And I should know KH circa 1969 For instance, based on work by Forster (1954): The overall appearance of the fauna and flora was much as described in the 1950s but with some species not re-found in 2003 and some species added to the lists from the 1950s
There are, of course, changes (e.g. Lundy) But, often, we have to use old data as we do not have time to re-survey unless a part of statutory monitoring
And habitat destruction has and is happening on a massive scale in places (Lyme Bay now)
Survey data from the MNCR ( ) (includes data from Northern Ireland surveys and BioMar surveys in Eire) Survey data from the MBA MarLIN data access sub- programme Issues: availability of data
Issues: there are significant gaps (MNCR data from MERMAID)
Issues: Locating, accessing, validating and making available unpublished records Part of unpublished 1927 survey data from Torbay, rescued 2005
Issues: some data sets very time- consuming to enter to a database See:
Issues: data sets in danger Skips arrive at the (closed) Port Erin Marine laboratory on 3 July 2006
New survey: Intertidal biotope surveys (with target notes for small-scale features) A type of biodiversity – but searches for rich habitats and rare species needed to identify special sites
Image courtesy of Envision. New survey: Biotope maps via acoustic survey and video: just a starting point - species data is needed to identify rare, scarce or threatened species, richness and to apply NIMF & BAP criteria.
Issues: we need to major on surveys that describe species occurrences and quantities - but they are not fashionable
Issues: decline of marine naturalists and associated knowledge Sir Frederick S. Russell Philip Henry Gosse
And finally, what its about: is keeping it looking like this