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Presentation on theme: "Fish."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fish

2 What are fish? Aquatic vertebrates Most have
Paired fins Scales Gills Wide range of characteristics Belong to different classes

3 Fish Evolution First fishes: armored bodies, no jaws
Cambrian period (510 mya) 505 mya to 410 mya: Adaptive Radiation of fishes – variation increased (no armor v. armor; jaws v. jawless)

4 Fish Evolution Jaw evolution and paired fins seem to have come about together Made out of bone or cartilage Paired fins More control during swimming Tail fins More muscle mass along trunk of body

5 Fish Evolution Fish evolved into two groups: Class Chondrichthyes
Superclass Osteichthyes Lobe finned (Class Sarcopterygii) evolutionary links point to the lobe finned fish sharing a common ancestor with early amphibians Ray finned (Class Actinopterygii)

6 Orders of Bony Fish Anguilliformes Order Salmoniformes Order
Cypriniformes Order Siluriformes Order Perciformes Order Use your computers to research characteristics of one order (body layout, habitat, types of food eaten, modes of feeding, examples). You will present your findings to the class.

7 Fish Order: Body layout: Habitat Types of food eaten Modes of feeding

8 Fish Form and Function Adaptations for life in water
Methods of feeding Gills Paired fins

9 Feeding Display all modes of feeding
Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, parasites, filter feeders, detritus feeders Depending on type of food available Some fish are highly specialized (barracuda - carnivore)

10 External Fish Anatomy Fins: Dorsal Pectoral Pelvic Anal Caudal

11 External Structures Fins Lateral Line Operculum Nares
steering, propulsion through water Lateral Line Operculum covers/protects gills Nares Nasal openings

12 Lateral Line Senses changes in the water NO external ear
Current Electrical Heat NO external ear Utilizes lateral line for detecting sound vibrations

13 Key: External Fish Anatomy
Nares Eye Fins: Dorsal Pectoral Pelvic Anal Caudal Operculum Mouth Lateral Line

14 Skeletal System Consists of bone and cartilage Skull Vertebrae Ribs
Rays – within the fins

15 Skeletal System

16 Muscular System Tail and Trunk Muscle Jaw Fin
Myotomes – blocks of muscle that run up and down the fish’s body Separated by myosepta Jaw Fin

17 Digestive System Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Liver and pancreas
Short, expandable (to enable swallowing of large food) Stomach Gastric glands Pyloric ceca Finger-like projections responsible for most digestion Liver and pancreas secrete enzymes to help with digestion Intestines majority of food absorption, length differs in herbivores a carnivores Gizzard

18 Digestive System

19 Digestive System Labeling
Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Liver Gall bladder Intestine Anus Stomach

20 Respiratory System Gills on either side of the pharynx
Made up of filaments Feathery structures with large number of capillaries for increased gas exchange Pull water in through the mouth, over the gills, out the openings on the side of the pharynx

21 Specialized Respiratory Systems
Exception: Lungfish – need to go to surface of water to fill air sac (“lung”) Oxygen poor water

22 Respiratory System Afferent blood vessels Efferent blood vessels Gills
Operculum Heart Dorsal aorta Ventral aorta

23 Also, describe how fish breathe.
What happens to the operculum? What is the purpose of afferent/efferent blood vessels?

24 Nervous System VERY simplified Brain
3 lobes Forebrain (smell) Midbrain (vision, learning, motor receptors) Hindbrain (medulla oblongata and cerebellum) Coordination Movement Balance Spinal cord – serves rest of the body

25 Nervous System - Brain

26 Circulatory System Closed circulatory system Single loop around body
4 part heart: (but considered 2 chambered) Sinus venosus Atrium Ventricle Bulbus arteriosus

27 Circulatory System – Blood Flow
Sinus venosus receives unoxygenated blood from the body Valve at the end of the sinus venosus opens into the atrium Atrium has thick, muscular walls Atrium receives unoxygenated blood and pumps it into the ventricle Ventricle is the largest and most muscular chamber of the heart Ventricle fills with blood it constricts and forces the blood through the bulbus arteriosus

28 Circulatory System – Blood Flow
Bulbus arteriosus is a valve or series of valves that control blood flow out of the ventricle and into the ventral aorta. Blood passes through the bulbus arteriosus to the ventral aorta. From the ventral aorta, blood flows to the gill filaments, where it is oxygenated. Blood flows out of gills through the dorsal aorta and through the fish’s body.

29 Label the heart of a fish
Sinus venosus Atrium Ventricle Bulbus arteriosus Vein Ventral Aorta Also, draw in direction of blood flow.

30 Circulatory System Red blood cell production Spleen Kidney Bones

31 Blood Flow

32 Excretory System Release nitrogenous waste as ammonia
Gills Kidneys filter blood to excrete liquid waste Kidneys allow fish to maintain salt balance Salt water fish Fresh water fish Cloaca

33 Reproduction External fertilization
Oviparous – completely separate from both parents Females release eggs into water Males release sperm Ovoviviparous One parent carries fertilized eggs until they hatch – no direct connection to the parent (yolk sac is nourishment) Viviparous Carry fertilized eggs internally – direct connection between mother and offspring (no yolk sac) Live birth Sharks


35 Growth and Development
Fish are able to live independently when hatched Some species build nests, care for young for long periods of time Aquatic life – minimal strain on organs, bone, muscle Can grow large Limits on circulatory system, brain function

36 Life Cycle of Bony Fish Egg Larval fish/Alevin Fry Juvenile Adult
Spawning adult

37 Other Structures Swim Bladder Between the stomach and the spine
Allows for buoyancy Fills with air to keep fish afloat If the fish does not have a swim bladder, they will sink if they stop swimming

38 Dissection of the Perch

39 You will need to sketch and label the following systems:
External fish anatomy Respiratory system Reproductive system Digestive system Heart I expect these to be turned in with the dissection packet and questions.

40 Also… You will be removing organs from your perch.
Throughout the dissection I will be circulating to see which organ(s) we will save for future comparisons. You will be graded on the dissection as well as the post-dissection packet. I will collect 1 packet from each person The answers to the questions throughout the procedure should be on a separate sheet of paper – these can be completed after the dissection Each group will receive a dissection grade.

41 Dissection of the Perch

42 Dissection of the Perch

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