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© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 17 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 17 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 Organic farming
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 17 Learning objectives What is organic farming? What are the advantages and disadvantages of organic farming?
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 3 of 17 How is organic farming different? Organic crops are produced without chemical pesticides or artificial fertilizers. Organic livestock is reared free range, allowing animals to move around. They are fed only organic foods. The use of antibiotics, hormones and other drugs is kept to a minimum. Organic farming produces food in a particular way.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 4 of 17 Organic farmers follow some basic principles: Organic farming
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 5 of 17 Organic alternatives to modern farming Organic farmers have found ways of farming without the use of chemicals. To keep the soil fertile, organic farmers use: To control pests, organic farmers use: However, yields are still much lower than on non-organic farms. Crop rotation – the type of crop grown is varied, so that the same nutrients do not get depleted every year. Organic fertilizers, like manure. Resistant varieties of plant. Biological controls – they release a creature onto the farm that feeds on the pest.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 6 of 17 South Penquite Farm – a case study South Penquite is a 80 hectare working hill farm situated high on Bodmin Moor in Cornwall. The farm has a flock of 300 ewes and a herd of 40 cows as well as many horses, ponies, goats, donkeys and chickens.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 7 of 17 The farm has achieved organic status under the guidance of the Soil Association. The process of gaining organic status takes two years, during which time no pesticides or nitrogen fertilizers can be used on the land. South Penquite Farm South Penquite started the conversion to becoming an organic farm in May 1999. Since June 2001 they have been able to offer organic beef and lamb.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 8 of 17 Measures have been taken to preserve the habitat of the Golden Plover. Some of South Penquite’s grazing land is managed to protect endangered plants. The river has been fenced-off to keep the farm animals off the banks. Riverbanks are an important wildlife habitat. The farm also has facilities for field studies, providing opportunities for educational groups to learn about the local environment. South Penquite Farm The farm also works to encourage wild plants and animals.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 9 of 17 Organic quiz!
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 10 of 17 Learning objectives What is organic farming? What are the advantages and disadvantages of organic farming?
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 11 of 17 Environmental concerns Many people feel that conventional farming is bad for the environment. Making fertilizers uses up fossil fuels. Fertilizer and pesticides are washed into lakes and rivers. Intensively farming the same crop each year reduces soil fertility. Pesticides kill off wild plants and insects, and poison birds and animals higher up the food chain.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 12 of 17 Ethical and health concerns Health When pesticides are used, traces of these chemicals may end up in the food we eat. Many people worry that these traces could be harmful to humans. Animal welfare Some people feel that conventional livestock farming is inhumane, causing distress and pain to the animals. Organic livestock farming involves giving greater thought to animal welfare. Organic meat is raised free-range. For example, battery chickens are kept in extremely cramped conditions.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 13 of 17 Disadvantages of organic farming Organic farming is less efficient. Compared to a conventional farm of the same size, an organic farm will usually produce less food. Organic alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides are less effective. Free-range animals take up more space, so fewer can be kept. Organic farming is also more labour intensive, so more workers are needed.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 14 of 17 Disadvantages of organic farming
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 15 of 17 Because organic farming is less efficient, organic food is more expensive. Many people on low incomes cannot afford to buy organic food. Some people argue that if all UK farms were to become organic, more land would have to be turned over to agriculture to make the same amount of food. Disadvantages of organic farming This could hurt, rather than help wild plants and animals, by destroying their habitats.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 16 of 17 Organic and GM Organic farmers make sure that their farms are GM-free. Some people are turning to organic produce as a guarantee that their food does not contain any GM. Genetically modified (GM) crops have had their genetic material altered by scientists to make them better than traditional crop varieties. There are concerns that GM crops are bad for the environment. They are resistant to pesticides, so farmers are able to use stronger chemicals on them. This may threaten wild plant species. People are also concerned that GM crops may harm human health.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 17 of 17 Is organic better?
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© Boardworks Ltd of 9 This icon indicates that detailed teacher’s notes are available in the Notes Page. To use this presentation click on View,
Types of Agriculture LEARNING OBJECTIVES
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FOOD. Population vs. Food Availability 1 out of every 6 people in developing countries is chronically undernourished or malnourished. To feed the world’s.
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